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The structures and mechanism of action of many terpene cyclases are known, but no structures of diterpene cyclases have yet been reported. Here, we propose structural models based on bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, domain swapping, enzyme inhibition, and spectroscopy that help explain the nature of diterpene cyclase structure, function, and(More)
Terpenes are the largest class of small-molecule natural products on earth, and the most abundant by mass. Here, we summarize recent developments in elucidating the structure and function of the proteins involved in their biosynthesis. There are six main building blocks or modules (α, β, γ, δ, ε, and ζ) that make up the structures of these enzymes: the αα(More)
The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus exists as trimers, and its tail-loop binding pocket has been suggested as a potential target for antiinfluenza therapeutics. The possibility of NP as a drug target was validated by the recent reports that nucleozin and its analogs can inhibit viral replication by inducing aggregation of NP trimers. However,(More)
Considerable effort has focused on the development of selective protein farnesyl transferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) inhibitors as cancer chemotherapeutics. Here, we report a new strategy for anticancer therapeutic agents involving inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase(More)
Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium-storage compartments described from bacteria to humans and characterized by their high content in poly P (polyphosphate), a linear polymer of many tens to hundreds of Pi residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In the present paper we report that millimolar levels of short-chain poly P (in terms of Pi(More)
Staphylococcus aureus produces a golden carotenoid virulence factor called staphyloxanthin (STX), and we report here the inhibition of the enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), responsible for the first committed step in STX biosynthesis. The most active compounds are halogen-substituted phosphonosulfonates, with K(i) values as low as 5 nM against the(More)
The gold color of Staphylococcus aureus is derived from the carotenoid staphyloxanthin, a virulence factor for the organism. Here, we report the synthesis and activity of a broad variety of staphyloxanthin biosynthesis inhibitors that inhibit the first committed step in its biosynthesis, condensation of two farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) molecules to(More)
We report X-ray crystallographic structures of three inhibitors bound to dehydrosqualene synthase from Staphylococcus aureus: 1 (BPH-651), 2 (WC-9), and 3 (SQ-109). Compound 2 binds to the S2 site with its -SCN group surrounded by four hydrogen bond donors. With 1, we report two structures: in both, the quinuclidine headgroup binds in the allylic (S1) site(More)
Bisphosphonates such as risedronate and ibandronate are widely used to treat a variety of bone resorption diseases, preventing protein prenylation and disrupting osteoclast function. Bisphosphonates also activate human gd T cells (expressing the Vg2Vd2 T cell receptor), and these activated gd T cells kill tumor cells. 3] There has thus been interest in(More)