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KEY POINTS ACh is an important modulator of breathing, including at the level of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), where evidence suggests that ACh is essential for the maintenance of breathing. Despite this potentially important physiological role, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the cholinergic control of RTN function. In the present(More)
Chemosensitive neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) regulate breathing in response to CO2/H(+) changes and serve as an integration center for other autonomic centers, including brain stem noradrenergic neurons. Norepinephrine (NE) contributes to respiratory control and chemoreception, and, since disruption of NE signaling may contribute to several(More)
Norepinephrine (NE) is a potent modulator of breathing that can increase/decrease respiratory activity by α1-/α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation, respectively. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is known to contribute to central chemoreception, inspiration, and active expiration. Here we investigate the sources of catecholaminergic inputs to the RTN and(More)
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