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The participant attack is the most serious threat for quantum secret-sharing protocols. We present a method to analyze the security of quantum secret-sharing protocols against this kind of attack taking the scheme of Hillery, Bužek, and Berthiaume (HBB) [Phys. Rev. A 59 1829 (1999)] as an example. By distinguishing between two mixed states, we derive the(More)
We show a quantum sharing of classical secret protocol using EPR pairs. Instead of distributing entangled particles to every player and letting them make a measurement in different bases randomly, we employ the entangled particles as a carrier to record the synthetical operations of all players. Even in the case of multi-party secret sharing, two-particle(More)
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