Fritz Stauffer

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The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of(More)
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the predominant infectious diseases. Effective control of its spread requires that sources of infection and routes of transmission be disclosed as quickly as possible. At present such investigations are still performed by conventional epidemiological methods. In the recent past, however, molecular typing systems were(More)
In this study the drug resistance pattern of 3559 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Austria between 1995 and 98 was evaluated. Of these strains, 165 (4.6%) were resistant to one or more drugs, 113 (3.2%) to one of the tested drugs and 53 (1.5%) to two or more drugs. Monodrug resistance was observed most often to isoniazid (56 strains), followed(More)
An easy-to-handle Mycobacterium-specific PCR assay for detection of the presence of a wide range of mycobacterial species in clinical samples was evaluated. The performance of the genus probe was compared with the performance of probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium and with that of standard culture. In addition, the utility(More)
The role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as mediator of the endotoxin shock and endotoxin-dependent tissue injury has been examined. The ability of opsonized bacteria to stimulate the release of PAF from human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was evaluated by measuring both the activity and the amount of the mediator released in the supernatant(More)
BACKGROUND Reprocessing of medical devices, being classified as semi-critical B is recommended to be performed in a washer-disinfector. In order to estimate, whether the expected contaminants of the various medical disciplines can be effectively removed by this washer-disinfector, different so called "test soils" have been proposed to be tested as a marker(More)
A total of 722 respiratory and 86 nonrespiratory specimens obtained from 456 patients were tested for detection ofMycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit (Amplicor, Roche Diagnostic Systems) and the results compared with those of microscopy and culture (solid and radiometric media). Respiratory and(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL6) are cytokines with a varied spectrum of inflammatory and immunological activities, for example modulation of acute phase proteins, fever and stimulation of B-lymphocytes. Mycobacterium avium has been shown to stimulate the release of TNF alpha and IL6 from cultured human monocytes and(More)
Dermatoscopes are directly placed on the skin of patients and therefore may harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria. In this study we assessed bacterial contamination of dermatoscopes during routine use and examined the effectiveness of isopropyl alcohol and disposable lens covers. Aerobic bacterial cultures were performed on randomly selected dermatoscopes(More)