Fritz Stauffer

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The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of(More)
An easy-to-handle Mycobacterium-specific PCR assay for detection of the presence of a wide range of mycobacterial species in clinical samples was evaluated. The performance of the genus probe was compared with the performance of probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium and with that of standard culture. In addition, the utility(More)
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)
The activity of clarithromycin in combination with ethambutol and rifampicin was tested at concentrations achievable in serum against 20 strains of Mycobacterium avium complex. The combination of clarithromycin plus rifampicin showed inhibition of 11 of the strains and bactericidal synergism against seven of the strains. When ethambutol was added, a(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL6) are cytokines with a varied spectrum of inflammatory and immunological activities, for example modulation of acute phase proteins, fever and stimulation of B-lymphocytes. Mycobacterium avium has been shown to stimulate the release of TNF alpha and IL6 from cultured human monocytes and(More)
A total of 722 respiratory and 86 nonrespiratory specimens obtained from 456 patients were tested for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit (Amplicor, Roche Diagnostic Systems) and the results compared with those of microscopy and culture (solid and radiometric media). Respiratory and(More)
In this study the drug resistance pattern of 3559 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Austria between 1995 and 98 was evaluated. Of these strains, 165 (4.6%) were resistant to one or more drugs, 113 (3.2%) to one of the tested drugs and 53 (1.5%) to two or more drugs. Monodrug resistance was observed most often to isoniazid (56 strains), followed(More)
The role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as mediator of the endotoxin shock and endotoxin-dependent tissue injury has been examined. The ability of opsonized bacteria to stimulate the release of PAF from human polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes was evaluated by measuring both the activity and the amount of the mediator released in the supernatant(More)
The authors studied radiographs and clinical histories of 29 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, symptoms of pulmonary infection, and simultaneous microbiologic evidence of Mycobacterium xenopi in the respiratory tract. The presence, nature, and distribution of radiographic abnormalities were determined and analyzed in accord with clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Currently, to our knowledge, quality of output water of dental chair units is not covered by specific regulations in the European Union, and national recommendations are heterogeneous. In Germany, water used in dental chair units must follow drinking water quality. In the United States of America, testing for aerobic heterotrophic bacteria is(More)