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This paper presents updated recommendations of the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics for age estimations in living individuals in criminal proceedings. In order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and to improve the identification of age-relevant developmental disorders, a physical examination, an X-ray examination of the left hand, as well as a(More)
When anthropometric methods were introduced into clinical practice to quantify changes in the craniofacial framework, features distinguishing various races/ethnic groups were discovered. To treat congenital or post-traumatic facial disfigurements in members of these groups successfully, surgeons require access to craniofacial databases based on accurate(More)
One of the main criteria used for age estimations of young living subjects is the developmental status of the ossification of hand bones. The impact of economic progress and modernization in medicine on ossification rates in a given population still requires further clarification. We selected 36 samples from literature for which the ossification status had(More)
In both diagnostic fields a two-stage strategy is recommended: to first use "field" methods that are quick and easy but more imprecise and then "laboratory" methods that are time consuming but more precise. In preparing skeletal work, individuality of a skeleton should be checked, traces of diseases sought and time since death assessed. For sexing(More)
Age estimations of living individuals are increasingly important in criminal matters. If doubts arise regarding the age of a person suspected of a criminal offense, forensic age estimation is prompted by the need to ascertain whether the person concerned has reached the age of criminal responsibility and whether general criminal law in force for older(More)
The Romanian village Eftimie Murgu, until recently quite endogamous, shows a remarkably high total twinning frequency of 20% between 1927 and 1977. Some other demographic properties are unusual too: the secular development of twinning is not so much characterized by a steady frequency decline as by a sharp and temporary depression after World War II. The(More)
The forensic determination of the age of living people has become increasingly important in recent years. With regard to the relevant age group, the radiographic assessment of third-molar mineralisation is of particular importance. So far, the influence of geographic origin on the mineralisation rate has been insufficiently analysed. The paper is based on a(More)
We analyze the taxonomic structure of European populations at three time periods, the Early Middle Ages, the Late Middle Ages and the Recent Period. The data consist of sample means for 10 cranial variables based on 137, 108, and 183 samples for the three periods. Clustering by standard numerical taxonomic procedures reveals that the data are represented(More)
In 1996, a cadaver in adipocere condition was discovered in a bay of the Brienzer See in Switzerland. The torso was named "Brienzi" following the "Iceman" Ötzi. Several outer parts of the body were incrusted; the incrustation was in blue color. Further investigations showed that the bluish covering of parts of the adipocere torso were a mineral known as(More)