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When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent's beliefs - based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment - as opposed to the agent's beliefs about(More)
AIMS To elucidate the relationship between tobacco smoking and depression, and to estimate the impact of other substance dependencies. DESIGN Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1,849 men and women were interviewed face-to-face using a validated structured questionnaire. According to their tobacco smoking behavior, participants were grouped into(More)
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, direct metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in body fluids and hair. We investigated urine and serum samples from three patient groups: (1) 33 in-patients in acute alcohol withdrawal; (2) 30 detoxified in-patients (treated for at least 4 weeks) from a 'motivation station'; and (3) 43(More)
AIMS In a variety of clinical and forensic situations long term use of alcohol must be monitored. In this project we explore the utility of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in this regard. Additionally, we propose a cut-off value of FAEE to distinguish teetotallers/moderate/social drinkers from alcoholics or individuals drinking at harmful levels. PATIENTS(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cannabis use among Swiss students and to assess their attitudes regarding health and safety issues associated with drug use. SUBJECTS AND METHODS After a workshop, 173 students (23.1% male, 75.7% female; 44.4% age 16, 43.8% age 17 and 11.8% age 18) from a Swiss school were surveyed by(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the(More)
This study sought to examine dopamine receptor sensitivity among alcoholics in vivo and to explore whether this sensitivity might be associated with functional variations of dopamine D2 (DRD2) and D3 (DRD3) receptor genes along with a genetic predisposition for alcoholism as reflected by an alcohol-dependent first-degree relative. We analyzed the -141C(More)
The risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among pathological gamblers is high compared to the general population. Little is known about the interplay of Axis I and Axis II disorders, severity of gambling disorder, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The study aims to address this linkage. The sampling design of the study "Pathological(More)
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an abnormal phospholipid carrying two fatty acid chains. It is only formed in the presence of ethanol via the action of phospholipase D (PLD). Its use as a biomarker for alcohol consumption is currently under investigation. Previous methods for the analysis of PEth included high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled(More)
BACKGROUND For pathological gambling (PG), a 12-month prevalence rate of up to 0.66% has been reported. Multiple financial, occupational and relationship problems and losses, humiliation of the person and the environment are possible side effects and may lead to hopelessness, suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. Suicide attempt rates among pathological(More)