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An investigation of singular fields emerging in the process of transforming QCD to the axial gauge is presented. The structure of the singularities is analyzed. It is shown that apart from well known neutral magnetic monopole singularities, the field configurations also exhibit singularities in their charged and transverse components. This complex… (More)

We analyze 3D flight paths of bumblebees searching for nectar in a laboratory experiment with and without predation risk from artificial spiders. For the flight velocities we find mixed probability distributions reflecting the access to the food sources while the threat posed by the spiders shows up only in the velocity correlations. The bumblebees thus… (More)

- J W Negele, F Lenz, M Thies
- 2004

In contrast to ensembles of singular gauge instantons, which are well known to fail to produce confinement, it is shown that effective theories based on ensembles of merons or regular gauge instantons do produce confinement. Furthermore, when the scale is set by the string tension, the action density, topological susceptibility, and glueball masses are… (More)

- F. Lenz
- 1994

A study of two-dimensional QCD on a spatial circle with Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge groups SU(2) and SU(3) has been performed. The main emphasis is put on the symmetry properties related to the homotopically non-trivial gauge transformations and the discrete axial symmetry of this model. Within a gauge fixed canonical… (More)

The movement of organisms is subject to a multitude of influences of widely varying character: from the bio-mechanics of the individual, over the interaction with the complex environment many animals live in, to evolutionary pressure and energy constraints. As the number of factors is large, it is very hard to build comprehensive movement models. Even when… (More)

A geometric argument is presented that the true ratio between the rest mass of the proton and the rest mass of the electron is 6π 5. The deviation of the measured value for this ratio from 6π 5 is interpreted to be a relativistic mass correction due to movement through the aether. This aether resembles a scalar field. Based upon the Lorentz transformation,… (More)

- F. Lenz
- 1994

A comparative dynamical study of axial gauge QED and QCD is presented. Elementary excitations associated with particular field configurations are investigated. Gluonic excitations analogous to linearly polarized photons are shown to acquire infinite energy. Suppression of this class of excitations in QCD results from quantization of the chromelectric flux… (More)

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