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We analyze 3D flight paths of bumblebees searching for nectar in a laboratory experiment with and without predation risk from artificial spiders. For the flight velocities we find mixed probability distributions reflecting the access to the food sources while the threat posed by the spiders shows up only in the velocity correlations. The bumblebees thus(More)
In contrast to ensembles of singular gauge instantons, which are well known to fail to produce confinement, it is shown that effective theories based on ensembles of merons or regular gauge instantons do produce confinement. Furthermore, when the scale is set by the string tension, the action density, topological susceptibility, and glueball masses are(More)
The movement of organisms is subject to a multitude of influences of widely varying character: from the bio-mechanics of the individual, over the interaction with the complex environment many animals live in, to evolutionary pressure and energy constraints. As the number of factors is large, it is very hard to build comprehensive movement models. Even when(More)
A comparative dynamical study of axial gauge QED and QCD is presented. Elementary excitations associated with particular field configurations are investigated. Gluonic excitations analogous to linearly polarized photons are shown to acquire infinite energy. Suppression of this class of excitations in QCD results from quantization of the chromelectric flux(More)
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