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By transposon Tn917 mutagenesis, 16 mutants of Staphylococcus xylosus were isolated that showed higher levels of beta-galactosidase activity in the presence of glucose than the wild-type strain. The transposons were found to reside in three adjacent locations in the genome of S. xylosus. The nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal fragment affected by the(More)
It is well known that biofilm formation by pathogenic staphylococci on implanted medical devices leads to "chronic polymer-associated infections." Bacteria in these biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune defense system than their planktonic counterparts, which suggests that the cells in a biofilm have altered metabolic activity. To(More)
In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from(More)
Characterization of a nitrite reductase-negative Staphylococcus carnosus Tn917 mutant led to the identification of the nir operon, which encodes NirBD, the dissimilatory NADH-dependent nitrite reductase; SirA, the putative oxidase and chelatase, and SirB, the uroporphyrinogen III methylase, both of which are necessary for biosynthesis of the siroheme(More)
An esterase of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes was purified to homogeneity from culture filtrate. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 30,862 +/- 5.8 Da, as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The esterase-encoding gene was cloned on a 5.1-kb MboI fragment from S. diastatochromogenes genomic DNA into Streptomyces lividans TK23 by using(More)
Products of the intercellular adhesion (ica) operon in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis synthesize a linear beta-1,6-linked glucosaminylglycan. This extracellular polysaccharide mediates bacterial cell-cell adhesion and is required for biofilm formation, which is thought to increase the virulence of both pathogens in association with(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large percentage of infections associated with implanted biomedical devices. The molecular basis of primary adhesion to artificial surfaces is not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that teichoic acids, highly charged cell wall polymers, play a key role in the first step of biofilm formation. An S. aureus mutant(More)
The genetic basis for the biosynthesis of large polypeptide antibiotics such as nisin has not been explained so far. We show here that the structural gene epiA encoding the antibiotic epidermin from Staphylococcus epidermidis is located on a 54-kilobase plasmid and codes for a 52-amino-acid prepeptide, which is processed to the tetracyclic 21-peptide amide(More)
The accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system in staphylococci is responsible for the regulation of surface proteins and exoproteins, including many virulence factors in the pathogenic species Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Strain S. epidermidis Tü3298 produces the lantibiotic epidermin. An isogenic agr deletion mutant of this strain(More)
Current treatment for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus relies heavily upon the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. Unfortunately, this practice has led to an intermediate resistance phenotype that is particularly difficult to treat in invasive staphylococcal diseases, such as septicemia and its metastatic(More)