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Recognition of microbial patterns by host pattern recognition receptors is a key step in immune activation in multicellular eukaryotes. Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are major components of bacterial cell walls that possess immunity-stimulating activities in metazoans and plants. Here we show that PGN sensing and immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis(More)
The genetic and molecular basis of biofilm formation in staphylococci is multifaceted. The ability to form a biofilm affords at least two properties: the adherence of cells to a surface and accumulation to form multilayered cell clusters. A trademark is the production of the slime substance PIA, a polysaccharide composed of beta-1,6-linked(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity constitutes the primary plant immune response that has evolved to recognize invariant structures of microbial surfaces. Here we show that Gram-positive bacteria-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) constitutes a novel PAMP of immune responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment with PGN from(More)
It is well known that biofilm formation by pathogenic staphylococci on implanted medical devices leads to "chronic polymer-associated infections." Bacteria in these biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune defense system than their planktonic counterparts, which suggests that the cells in a biofilm have altered metabolic activity. To(More)
Most Staphylococcus aureus strains produce the orange carotenoid staphyloxanthin. The staphyloxanthin biosynthesis genes are organized in an operon, crtOPQMN, with a sigma(B)-dependent promoter upstream of crtO and a termination region downstream of crtN. The functions of the five encoded enzymes were predicted on the basis of their sequence similarity to(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to alpha-defensins, antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in oxygen-independent killing of human neutrophils. The dlt operon mediates d-alanine incorporation into teichoic acids in the staphylococcal cell envelope and is a determinant of defensin resistance. By using S. aureus wild-type (WT) and Dlt- bacteria,(More)
The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) is a surface protein implicated in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chronic mastitis infections. The bap gene is carried in a putative composite transposon inserted in SaPIbov2, a mobile staphylococcal pathogenicity island. In this study, bap orthologue genes from several staphylococcal species,(More)
Previously it has been demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus is sensitive toward Pseudomonas-secreted exotoxins, which preferentially target the electron transport chain in staphylococci. Here it is shown that a subpopulation of S. aureus survives these respiratory toxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by selection of the small-colony variant (SCV) phenotype.(More)
The DNA fragment coding for kringle 2 plus serine protease domains (K2S) of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was inserted into a phagemid vector, pComb3HSS. In the recombinant vector, pComb3H-K2S, the K2S gene was fused to gpIII of PhiM13 and linked to the OmpA signal sequence. The resulting gene, rK2S-gpIII, was inducibly expressed in Escherichia coli(More)
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause serious chronic and recurrent infections that are difficult to eradicate. An important pathogenicity factor in these infections caused by S. aureus is its ability to be internalized by non-professional phagocytes thereby evading the host immune system and antibiotic treatment. Here, we report a(More)