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It is well known that biofilm formation by pathogenic staphylococci on implanted medical devices leads to "chronic polymer-associated infections." Bacteria in these biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune defense system than their planktonic counterparts, which suggests that the cells in a biofilm have altered metabolic activity. To(More)
The major autolysin of Staphylococcus aureus (AtlA) and of Staphylococcus epidermidis (AtlE) are well-studied enzymes. Here we created an atlA deletion mutant in S. aureus that formed large cell clusters and was biofilm-negative. In electron micrographs, the mutant cells were distinguished by rough outer cell surface. The mutant could be complemented using(More)
The Staphylococcus carnosus genome has the highest GC content of all sequenced staphylococcal genomes, with 34.6%, and therefore represents a species that is set apart from S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, and S. haemolyticus. With only 2.56 Mbp, the genome belongs to a family of smaller staphylococcal genomes, and the ori and ter regions are(More)
In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from(More)
Lipoproteins (Lpp) are ligands of TLR2 and signal by the adaptor MyD88. As part of the bacterial cell envelope, Lpp are mainly involved in nutrient acquisition for Staphylococcus aureus. The impact of Lpp on TLR2-MyD88 activation for S. aureus in systemic infection is unknown. S. aureus strain SA113 deficient in the enzyme encoded by the prolipoprotein(More)
The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we analyzed the specific cleavage sites on the staphylococcal peptidoglycan produced by three phage lytic proteins. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes were the endolysin LysH5 derived from the S. aureus(More)
The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the 'Staphylococcus intermedius group' of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that(More)
A lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) deletion mutant of Staphylococcus aureus SA113 was constructed. The lipoprotein and prelipoprotein expression, the growth behavior, and the ability of the mutant to elicit an immune response in various host cells were studied. In the wild type, the majority of [14C]palmitate-labeled lipoproteins were located in(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to alpha-defensins, antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in oxygen-independent killing of human neutrophils. The dlt operon mediates d-alanine incorporation into teichoic acids in the staphylococcal cell envelope and is a determinant of defensin resistance. By using S. aureus wild-type (WT) and Dlt- bacteria,(More)
The accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system in staphylococci is responsible for the regulation of surface proteins and exoproteins, including many virulence factors in the pathogenic species Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Strain S. epidermidis Tü3298 produces the lantibiotic epidermin. An isogenic agr deletion mutant of this strain(More)