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Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
Recent experiments have shown that somatic graviceptors exist in humans. Traditionally, extravestibular gravity information has been thought to originate from mechanoreceptors in the joints, muscles and skin. Experiments with normal, paraplegic and nephrectomized subjects revealed that the kidneys and the cardiovascular system are involved in providing(More)
This article examines the relation between the perception of one's own body position and the distribution of fluid along the subject's spinal (z-) axis. Two experiments are reported. The first one is a replication of the Vaitl et al. study [J. Psychophysiol. 27 (1997) 99] which has shown that changes in shifts of blood volume into or out of the thoracic(More)
Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction) during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) on autonomic neural(More)
Astronauts in space consume fewer calories and return to earth predisposed to orthostatic intolerance. The role that caloric deficit plays in the modulation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6° head-down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) with a hypocaloric diet(More)
KEY POINTS We studied healthy astronauts before, during and after the Neurolab Space Shuttle mission with controlled breathing and apnoea, to identify autonomic changes that might contribute to postflight orthostatic intolerance. Measurements included the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, respiratory carbon dioxide levels,(More)
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