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Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
We studied three Russian cosmonauts to better understand how long-term exposure to microgravity affects autonomic cardiovascular control. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic pressure, and respiratory flow before, during, and after two 9-mo missions to the Russian space station Mir. Measurements were made during four modes of(More)
Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
The haemodynamic response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was studied in 6 test subjects before (baseline), during, and after (recovery) ten days of 6 degrees head-down bedrest. The LBNP protocol consisted of a 35 min control period, application of a staircase differential pressure profile (15 min at -15 mmHg; 5 min at -30 mmHg; 15 min at -40 mmHg),(More)
Exposures to microgravity and head-down tilt (HDT) produce similar changes in body fluid. This causes an increase in hematocrit that significantly affects hemorheological values. Lack of physical stimulation under bed rest conditions and the relative immobility of the crew during spaceflight also affects the blood fluidity. A group of six healthy male(More)
A commonly accepted hypothesis is that a chronically high-sodium diet expands extracellular volume and finally reaches a steady state where sodium intake and output are balanced whereas extracellular volume is expanded. However, in a recent study where the main purpose was to investigate the role of natriuretic peptides under day-to-day sodium intake(More)
Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a(More)
Noninvasive cardiac output (CO) measured by arterial pulse analysis was compared with that measured by inert gas rebreathing in six healthy male volunteers. Pulse contour analysis was applied to the pressure wave output of a Finapres, which noninvasively measures continuous arterial pressure in a finger. Data were collected before, during, and after a(More)
Adrenergic receptor responses to 10 days head-down tilt (HDT) bed-rest were measured in six healthy young males. The densities of alpha 2-receptors on platelets, beta 2-receptors on lymphocytes, and the responsiveness of beta 2-receptors to isoproterenol stimulation were assessed, as were the urinary catecholamine excretion rates. The densities of alpha 2-(More)
When astronauts return to Earth and stand, their heart rates may speed inordinately, their blood pressures may fall, and some may experience frank syncope. We studied brief autonomic and haemodynamic transients provoked by graded Valsalva manoeuvres in astronauts on Earth and in space, and tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs(More)