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Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
A commonly accepted hypothesis is that a chronically high-sodium diet expands extracellular volume and finally reaches a steady state where sodium intake and output are balanced whereas extracellular volume is expanded. However, in a recent study where the main purpose was to investigate the role of natriuretic peptides under day-to-day sodium intake(More)
The lack of hydrostatic forces in space eventually produces a fluid deficit within the circulatory system. This deficit may alter the circulatory regulation patterns. The aim of the present study was to determine how much of this fluid deficit is attributable to interstitial fluid losses and to determine the effects of lower body negative pressure (LBNP)(More)
Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a(More)
We studied three Russian cosmonauts to better understand how long-term exposure to microgravity affects autonomic cardiovascular control. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic pressure, and respiratory flow before, during, and after two 9-mo missions to the Russian space station Mir. Measurements were made during four modes of(More)
Astronauts returning to Earth have reduced orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system and neuromuscular function after spaceflight might contribute to this problem. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs autonomic neural control of sympathetic outflow in response to peripheral(More)
When astronauts return to Earth and stand, their heart rates may speed inordinately, their blood pressures may fall, and some may experience frank syncope. We studied brief autonomic and haemodynamic transients provoked by graded Valsalva manoeuvres in astronauts on Earth and in space, and tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs(More)
Noninvasive cardiac output (CO) measured by arterial pulse analysis was compared with that measured by inert gas rebreathing in six healthy male volunteers. Pulse contour analysis was applied to the pressure wave output of a Finapres, which noninvasively measures continuous arterial pressure in a finger. Data were collected before, during, and after a(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that space travel cause post-flight orthostatic hypotension and it was assumed that autonomic cardiovascular control deteriorates in space. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was used to assess autonomic function of the cardiovascular system. METHODS LBNP tests were performed on six crew-members before and on the first days(More)