Freya Q. Schafer

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Redox state is a term used widely in the research field of free radicals and oxidative stress. Unfortunately, it is used as a general term referring to relative changes that are not well defined or quantitated. In this review we provide a definition for the redox environment of biological fluids, cell organelles, cells, or tissue. We illustrate how the(More)
Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PhGPx) is an important enzyme in the removal of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) from cell membranes. Cancer treatments such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) induce lipid peroxidation in cells as a detrimental action. The photosensitizers used produce reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)).(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that governs cellular responses to reduced O2 availability by mediating crucial homeostatic processes. HIF-1 is composed of an HIF-1α subunit and an HIF-1β subunit. HIF-1α is degraded following enzyme-dependent hydroxylation of prolines of HIF-1α in the presence of molecular oxygen, Fe2+,(More)
Although its concentration is generally not known, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) is a key enzyme in the removal of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in biological systems. Extrapolating from kinetic results obtained in vitro using dilute, homogenous buffered solutions, it is generally accepted that the rate of elimination of H2O2 in vivo by GPx is independent of(More)
The interest in nitric oxide has grown with the discovery that it has many biological functions. This has heightened the need for methods to quantify nitric oxide. Here we report two separate methods for the quantification of aqueous stock solutions of nitric oxide. The first is a new method based on the reaction of nitric oxide with oxygen in liquid phase(More)
We have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable assay for the determination of ascorbate using a plate reader. In this assay, ascorbic acid is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid using Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy) and then reacted with o-phenylenediamine to form the condensation product,(More)
The principal source of hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria is thought to be from the dismutation of superoxide via the enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). However, the nature of the effect of SOD on the cellular production of H(2)O(2) is not widely appreciated. The current paradigm is that the presence of SOD results in a lower level of H(2)O(2)(More)
Nitric oxide (NO*) is an effective chain-breaking antioxidant in free radical-mediated lipid oxidation (LPO). It reacts rapidly with peroxyl radicals as a sacrificial chain-terminating antioxidant. The goal of this work was to determine the minimum threshold concentration of NO* required to inhibit Fe2+ -induced cellular lipid peroxidation. Using oxygen(More)
Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PhGPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that reduces cellular phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOHs) to alcohols. Cellular peroxide tone has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation. By reducing the PLOOH level in the cell membrane, PhGPx regulates the peroxide tone and thereby might be involved in cell(More)