Fren Smulders

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Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were measured in 2 dimensions: positive-negative (valence) and arousal-sedation, with 2 versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. Schwartz) and related explicit measures. Heavy drinkers (n = 24) strongly associated alcohol with arousal on the arousal IAT(More)
An experiment was conducted to relate individual components of the event-related brain potential to specific stages of information processing in a two-choice reaction time (RT) task in a group of undergraduate students. Specifically, the latency of the P300 component and the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) were studied as a function of variations in(More)
ERPs were recorded from subjects who were required to push a button in response to a given conjunction of spatial frequency and orientation (target), and to ignore conjunctions sharing with the target only frequency (frequency-relevant), only orientation (orientation-relevant), or neither (irrelevant). Differences between ERPs to irrelevant and(More)
Two spatial cueing experiments were conducted to examine the functional significance of lateralized ERP components after cue-onset and to discriminate components related to sensory cue aspects and components related to the direction of attention. In Experiment 1, a simple detection task was presented. In Experiment 2, attentional selection was augmented.(More)
Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental validity studies, and (c) incremental and(More)
In our obesogenic environment, self-control might be necessary in order to prevent overeating. Impulsivity is supposed to make it more difficult to resist the temptation to eat too much and can thereby contribute to overweight. In the present study, the hypotheses is tested that obese individuals are more impulsive. Thirty-one obese and 28 lean women,(More)
In this study, we compared selection of conjunctions of spatial frequency and orientation in young and old subjects, using performance and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures. Responses to target conjunctions were slightly but significantly slower in older subjects; lateralized readiness potential (LRP) onsets did not differ between groups. Older(More)
It is often assumed that when a neutral cue is presented in a spatial cueing task, attention remains at fixation until target onset. We hypothesized that variance in nonspatial attention and switches of attention toward target locations can account for variance in reaction times of neutral trials. Lateralized event-related potentials (ERPs) and changes in(More)
In two experiments, we investigated whether a P300 based Concealed Information Test (CIT) can be used to detect concealed face recognition. The results show that detection of concealed face recognition is highly successful when stimuli depict persons who are personally highly familiar, and instructions to conceal recognition are given. When pictures depict(More)
In a spatial cueing paradigm it was investigated whether endogenous orienting is sensitive to orienting processes in the previous trial. Specifically, the effect of the previous cue direction, the previous trial type (valid, invalid, neutral, catch) and target alternation effects were studied. Strategic effects were shown as attentional costs and benefits(More)