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The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and(More)
In neurons, neurogranin (Ng) binds calmodulin (CaM), and its binding affinity is reduced by increasing Ca2+, phosphorylation by PKC, or oxidation by oxidants. Ng concentration in the hippocampus of adult mice varied broadly (Ng+/+, 160-370 and Ng+/-, approximately 70-230 pmol/mg); the level in Ng+/+ mice is one of the highest among all neuronal CaM-binding(More)
Neurogranin/RC3 is a protein that binds calmodulin and serves as a substrate for protein kinase C. Neuronally distributed in the hippocampus and forebrain, neurogranin is highly expressed in dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells, implicating this protein in long-term potentiation and in learning and memory processes. Null mutation of the(More)
A 7.5-kDa heat- and acid-stable rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) substrate was purified to near homogeneity by a two-step procedure using DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite column chromatography. This 78-amino-acid protein has a sequence identical to that deduced from rat brain RC3 cDNA identified with a cortex-minus-cerebellum subtracted cDNA probe (J. B.(More)
Recently, we isolated 3 protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes from rat brain (Huang et al., 1986a). Using isozyme-specific antibodies for immunoblot, we have determined the relative levels of each isozyme in various regions of the rat brain (Huang et al., 1987b). The present paper describes the cellular distributions of PKC isozymes in rat brain as determined by(More)
Neurogranin (NG) binding of calmodulin (CaM) at its IQ domain is sensitive to Ca(2+) concentration and to modifications by protein kinase C (PKC) and oxidants. The PKC phosphorylation site of NG is within the IQ domain whereas the four oxidant-sensitive Cys residues are outside this region. These Cys residues were oxidized forming two pairs of(More)
Neurogranin/RC3 is a neural-specific Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by phosphorylation and oxidation. Here we show that deletion of the Ng gene in mice did not result in obvious developmental or neuroanatomical abnormalities but caused an impairment of spatial learning and changes in hippocampal(More)
Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific, postsynaptically located protein kinase C (PKC) substrate, highly expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala. This protein is a Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein whose CaM-binding affinity is modulated by phosphorylation and oxidation. To investigate the role of Ng in neural function, a(More)
Environmental enrichment is known to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions. Neurogranin (Ng), a specific substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), is abundantly expressed in brain regions important for cognitive functions. Deletion of Ng in mice causes severe deficits in spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) enzyme family consists of the Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent subgroups of phospholipid/diacylglycerol (DAG)-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinases. These enzymes exhibit distinct cellular and subcellular localizations in CNS and subtle differences in their biochemical characteristics and substrate specificities. It is believed(More)