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OBJECTIVE To assess whether subthalamic nuclei (STN) stimulation's primary mechanism of action is to drive or inhibit output neurons. METHODS Cerebral blood flow responses to STN stimulation were measured using PET in 13 patients with Parkinson disease. Patients were scanned with stimulators off and on (six scans each condition). Clinical ratings, EMG,(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson disease (PD) patients affects working memory and response inhibition performance, particularly under conditions of high demand on cognitive control. METHODS To test this hypothesis, spatial working memory (spatial delayed response [SDR]) and response inhibition(More)
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) improves motor symptoms in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, yet the mechanism of action remains unclear. Previous studies indicate that STN DBS increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in immediate downstream targets but does not reveal which brain regions may have functional changes associated(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of constant-current deep brain stimulation (DBS) have not been studied in controlled trials in patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral constant-current DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. METHODS This prospective, randomised, multicentre controlled trial was done between Sept 26, 2005,(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with disabling motor fluctuations performed with an expedient procedure with limited intraoperative mapping. METHODS Bilateral STN DBS systems were implanted in 110 PD patients.(More)
Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a disabling movement disorder associated with postural and gait impairment in the elderly. Medical therapy often yields insufficient benefit. We report the clinical and electrophysiological data on two patients with medication-refractory OT treated with deep brain stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (Vim DBS).(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of unilateral versus bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on quantitative measures of walking and reaching in Parkinson's disease (PD). We used kinematic measures and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor subscale (subscale III) to evaluate the movement of 6 people with(More)
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty with speech and swallowing, pain and respiratory distress.(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. METHODS In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n=42), bradykinesia (n=38), and(More)
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity might contribute to the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and other polyglutamine repeat disorders. We used murine neocortical cultures derived from transgenic and knock-in mice to test the effect of expression of expanded polyglutamine-containing huntingtin on neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxins or other insults.(More)