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Antigen presentation to T cells by MHC molecules is essential for adaptive immune responses. To determine the exact position of a gene affecting expression of MHC molecules, we finely mapped a previously defined rat quantitative trait locus regulating MHC class II on microglia in an advanced intercross line. We identified a small interval including the gene(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4(+) self-reactive T cells target myelin components of the CNS. However, the consequences of an autoaggressive T cell response against myelin for neurons are currently unknown. We herein demonstrate that EAE induced by active immunization with an encephalitogenic myelin basic protein peptide dramatically(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenetic factor that promotes endothelial cell proliferation during development and after injury to various types of tissue, including the central nervous system (CNS). Using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods we have here demonstrated that VEGF and its receptors Flk-1, Flt-1 and(More)
With the goal of better understanding the function and regulation of the different members of the VEGF family this study reports mapping of vegf, vegf-b and vegf-c mRNA expression in developing and adult mice. On embryonic day 14 (E14) there is a high expression of vegf and vegf-b, vegf-b being exceptionally high in heart and CNS. The vegf-c expression is(More)
Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who(More)
Recently, MHC class I molecules have been shown to be important for the retraction of synaptic connections that normally occurs during development [Huh, G.S., Boulanger, L. M., Du, H., Riquelme, P. A., Brotz, T. M. & Shatz, C. J. (2000) Science 290, 2155-2158]. In the adult CNS, a classical response of neurons to axon lesion is the detachment of synapses(More)
We have generated double mutant mice deficient in pairs of two different Trk receptors and have analysed the effects on survival and differentiation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), inner ear cochlear and vestibular sensory neurons. In most combinations of mutant trk alleles, the defects observed in double compared to single mutant mice were additive.(More)
Ventral root avulsion in the rat leads to a retrograde response, with activation of glia and up-regulation of immunologic cell surface molecules such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, and the subsequent degeneration of a large proportion of the lesioned motoneurons. Herein, we examined several inbred congenic rat strains previously known(More)
We demonstrate here that motoneurons and nigral dopaminergic neurons in the brainstem of the adult rat, with the exception of motoneurons innervating ocular muscles, display high levels of both MHC class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin mRNAs. These neurons also display interferon-gamma receptor mRNA. We find it striking that these particular neurons(More)