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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and comparability of the commercially available insert earphone Etymotic Research ER-3A and the commonly available supra-aural TDH earphone. Thirteen subjects were tested five times with the ER-3A and five times with TDH-49P with MX-41/AR cushions. Threshold determinations were obtained utilizing a(More)
Since the year 2000, a concerted campaign against malaria has led to unprecedented levels of intervention coverage across sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the effect of this control effort is vital to inform future control planning. However, the effect of malaria interventions across the varied epidemiological settings of Africa remains poorly understood(More)
A unified approach is given for the analysis of the weak error of spatially semidiscrete finite element methods for linear stochastic partial differential equations driven by additive noise. An error representation formula is found in an abstract setting based on the semigroup formulation of stochastic evolution equations. This is then applied to the(More)
We consider a semilinear parabolic PDE driven by additive noise. The equation is discretized in space by a standard piecewise linear finite element method. We show that the orthogonal expansion of the finite-dimensional Wiener process, that appears in the discretized problem, can be truncated severely without losing the asymptotic order of the method,(More)
We present an abstract framework for analyzing the weak error of fully discrete approximation schemes for linear evolution equations driven by additive Gaussian noise. First, an abstract representation formula is derived for sufficiently smooth test functions. The formula is then applied to the wave equation, where the spatial approximation is done via the(More)
In order to investigate the function of the inner ear melanin, the relationship between skin pigmentation and noise-induced temporary hearing loss (TTS) was studied. Forty-four normal-hearing Caucasian subjects were divided into three groups according to their sun sensitivity. Hearing thresholds before and after exposure were ascertained with a computerized(More)
Multivariate PCA- and PLS-models involving many variables are often difficult to interpret, because plots and lists of loadings, coefficients, VIPs, etc, rapidly become messy and hard to overview. There may then be a strong temptation to eliminate variables to obtain a smaller data set. Such a reduction of variables, however, often removes information and(More)
Ten voluntary subjects were exposed to 10 min of recorded pop music on five occasions. On five other occasions these subjects were exposed to a noise with level-, frequency-, and time-distribution characteristics, measured in octave-band steps, equal to those of the music. Measurements of temporary threshold shift showed almost equal sensitivity to the two(More)
In order to investigate the function of the inner ear melanin, noise-induced temporary hearing loss (temporary threshold shift, TTS) was studied in humans with either blue or brown iris colour. Sixty-eight normally hearing teenage boys participated in this study. Hearing thresholds before and after exposure were established with a computerized sweep(More)