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Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are often optimized by adjusting metabolic parameters so as to fit experimental toxicokinetic data. The estimates of the metabolic parameters are then conditional on the assumed values for all other parameters. Meanwhile, the reliability of other parameters, or the structural model, is usually not(More)
The Bayesian approach has been suggested as a suitable method in the context of mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling, as it allows for efficient use of both data and prior knowledge regarding the drug or disease state. However, to this day, published examples of its application to real PK-PD problems have been scarce. We present an(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term daily use of aspirin has been associated with reduced cancer mortality. To explore this association, we compared tumour TNM characteristics among aspirin users with those among non-users. METHODS From the Swedish Cancer Register, we identified patients diagnosed with colorectal, lung, prostate and breast cancers between 2006 and 2009(More)
We report on the first demonstration of a quaternary-logical resonatorless optical memory element with information encoded in the structural phase of a single 80 nm gallium nanoparticle. The size of the memory element is comparable with bits in next-generation hard disks, and radically smaller than previously suggested memories exploiting optical(More)
BACKGROUND The association between emergency department (ED) overcrowding and poor patient outcomes is well described, with recent work suggesting that the phenomenon causes delays in time-sensitive interventions, such as resuscitation. Even though most researchers agree on the fact that admitted patients boarding in the ED is a major contributing factor to(More)
The injection of a beam of free 50 keV electrons into an unstructured gold surface creates a highly localized source of traveling surface plasmons with spectra centered below the surface plasmon resonance frequency. The plasmons were detected by a controlled decoupling into light with a grating at a distance from the excitation point. The dominant(More)
BACKGROUND A possible downstream effect of high in-hospital bed occupancy is that patients in the emergency department (ED) who would benefit from in-hospital care are denied admission. The present study aimed at evaluating this hypothesis through investigating associations between in-hospital bed occupancy at the time of presentation in the ED and the(More)