Learn More
OBJECTIVE Clinical trials sometimes have the same therapists deliver more than 1 psychotherapy, ostensibly to control for therapist effects. This "crossed therapist" design makes controlling for therapist allegiance imperative, as therapists may prefer one treatment they deliver to the other(s). Research has established a strong relationship between(More)
OBJECTIVE Developments in working alliance theory posit that the therapist's attention to fluctuations in the alliance throughout treatment is crucial. Accordingly, researchers have begun studying the alliance as a time-varying mechanism of change rather than as a static moderator. However, most studies to date suffer from bias owing to the nonindependence(More)
The therapeutic alliance has been found to predict psychotherapy outcome in numerous studies. However, critics maintain that the therapeutic alliance is a by-product of prior symptomatic improvements. Moreover, almost all alliance research to date has used differences between patients in alliance as predictor of outcome, and results of such analyses do not(More)
OBJECTIVE Although the working alliance as been found to be a robust predictor of psychotherapy outcome, critics have questioned the causal status of this effect. Specifically, the effect of the alliance may be confounded with the effect of prior symptom improvement. The objective of the present study was to test this possibility. METHOD A large dataset(More)
The working alliance concerns the quality of collaboration between patient and therapist in psychotherapy. One of the most widely used scales for measuring the working alliance is the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI). For the patient-rated version, the short form developed by Hatcher and Gillaspy (WAI-SR) has shown the best psychometric properties. In two(More)
Depression treatment with antidepressants is generally described as evidence-based. However, generalizations to practice recommendations seem to us to rest on the tacit assumption that treatment outcome in research trials is the sum of three factors: specific effects of the drug, expectancy effects (placebo), and spontaneous recovery. Because randomization(More)
Long-term follow-up studies of long-term psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy or psychoanalysis are extremely rare, and few have focused on the post-treatment process itself. In the Stockholm Outcome of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy project, one of the results was that patients in psychoanalysis continued to improve after termination to a higher(More)
Previous research indicates that patients treated with psychotherapy in the community do not stay in treatment long enough to achieve clinically significant change. Because the average patient seeking treatment at a community center may not be as informed and motivated for change as the average patient participating in a research trial, the authors compared(More)
The aim of this study was to assess whether a modified version of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS), created to assess interaction quality between parents and children, could be applied to psychotherapy sessions and whether emotional availability (EA), as assessed by the modified EAS-T, was associated with client- and therapist-rated working alliance.(More)