Fredrick A Schmitt

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College age (mean age 20 years) and older adults (mean age 69 years) were asked to predict their memory spans and to indicate readiness to recall sets of line drawings in Experiment 1. Although no age differences were found in span prediction accuracy, clear differences were obtained in recall readiness. When given unlimited study time with sets of items(More)
The role of semantic memory activation in accounting for generation effects and reality monitoring was investigated in young and old normal adults and in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Both young and old normal adults demonstrated higher recall for internally generated information than for externally presented information, whereas the(More)
In 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we compared performance on a brief Telephone-Assessed Mental State (TAMS) examination with performance on standard cognitive instruments administered face to face. TAMS scores correlated strongly with scores on both the Mini Mental State Examination (rho = 0.81) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (rho(More)
Younger (mean age = 23.9 years) and older (mean age = 73.9 years) adults were compared on a free recall task with lists of categorizable words. One-half of the subjects were given instructions to rehearse overtly during list study, and the remainder received standard (covert) instructions. Relative to covert rehearsal, overt rehearsal did not appear to(More)
Older and younger adults were asked to think aloud while studying sets of pictures matched in difficulty for immediate serial recall. When instructed only to remember, young adults tended to study longer, rehearse more, and recall better than did older adults on the most difficult lists. Young adults were also much more likely to spontaneously test(More)
Three groups of older adults (mean age 72.1 years) were compared on a free recall task with categorizable lists. The nine females and two males in each group were instructed to rehearse overtly while studying. A group instructed to rehearse by category showed higher levels of free recall and category organization than either a control group instructed only(More)
This study examined the impact of age on the generation effect using measures of study time, recognition (d prime), cautiousness (beta), and judgment reaction time. Thirty-six younger and 36 older adults studied antonym pairs, half of which were intact and half of which were missing two adjacent interior letters requiring active encoding (generation) to(More)
This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups'(More)
OBJECTIVE Exposure to endogenous cortisol is associated with hippocampal degeneration and may contribute to problems with declarative memory, but effects of persistent versus phasic cortisol elevations have not been established. The present longitudinal investigation examined persistent individual differences and phasic changes in cortisol as they related(More)
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