Fredric E . Wondisford

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Insulin resistance and elevated glucagon levels result in nonsuppressible hepatic glucose production and hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The CREB coactivator complex controls transcription of hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme genes. Here, we show that both the antidiabetic agent metformin and insulin phosphorylate the transcriptional coactivator(More)
The beta isoform of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-beta) has a key role in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (H-P-T) axis. The mechanism of trans-repression of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) subunit genes, however, remains poorly understood. A number of distinct(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in reproduction, although the mechanism of central hypogonadism in humans remains unclear. Because the GnRH neuron originates from the olfactory placode and migrates to the hypothalamus during development, central hypogonadism in humans could be caused by failure in normal migration of GnRH neurons to the(More)
Thyroid hormone action is mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. DNA-binding is presumed to be essential for all nuclear actions of thyroid hormone. To test this hypothesis in vivo, the DNA-binding domain of TR-beta was mutated within its P-box (GS mutant) using gene targeting techniques.(More)
Cone photoreceptors in the murine retina are patterned by dorsal repression and ventral activation of S opsin. TR beta 2, the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor beta isoform 2, regulates dorsal repression. To determine the molecular mechanism by which TR beta 2 acts, we compared the spatiotemporal expression of TR beta 2 and S opsin from embryonic day (E) 13(More)
Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a critical role in development, growth, and cellular metabolism. TH production is controlled by a complex mechanism of positive and negative regulation. Hypothalamic TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates TSH secretion from the anterior pituitary. TSH then initiates TH synthesis and release from the thyroid gland. The synthesis of(More)
BACKGROUND To detect recurrent disease in patients who have had differentiated thyroid cancer, periodic withdrawal of thyroid hormone therapy may be required to raise serum thyrotropin concentrations to stimulate thyroid tissue so that radioiodine (iodine-131) scanning can be performed. However, withdrawal of thyroid hormone therapy causes hypothyroidism.(More)
Congenital hypothyroidism and the thyroid hormone (T(3)) resistance syndrome are associated with severe central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Because thyroid hormones are thought to act principally by binding to their nuclear receptors (TRs), it is unexplained why TR knock-out animals are reported to have normal CNS structure and function. To(More)
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) modulate various physiological functions in many organ systems. The TR alpha and TR beta isoforms are products of 2 distinct genes, and the beta 1 and beta 2 isoforms are splice variants of the same gene. Whereas TR alpha 1 and TR beta 1 are widely expressed, expression of the TR beta 2 isoform is mainly limited to the(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates and thyroid hormone (T3) inhibits transcription of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene (TSH-beta). The first exon contains DNA sequences necessary for both responses and binds both AP-1 and thyroid hormone receptor (T3R). T3 did not inhibit TSH-beta gene expression in a T3R-deficient cell line. Transfection of a(More)