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Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the predominant lipase effector of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL-dependent lipolysis in response to catecholamines is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of perilipin A (Peri A), an essential lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein. It is believed that perilipin phosphorylation(More)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is known to mediate the hydrolysis not only of triacylglycerol stored in adipose tissue but also of cholesterol esters in the adrenals, ovaries, testes, and macrophages. To elucidate its precise role in the development of obesity and steroidogenesis, we generated HSL knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem(More)
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that store neutral lipids within cells. Over the last two decades there has been a dramatic growth in our understanding of LD biology and, in parallel, our understanding of the role of LDs in health and disease. In its simplest form, the LD regulates the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids, including(More)
Phosphorylation of the lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin A (Peri A) mediates the actions of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) to stimulate triglyceride hydrolysis (lipolysis) in adipocytes. Studies addressing how Peri A PKA sites regulate adipocyte lipolysis have relied on non-adipocyte cell models, which express neither adipose(More)
Perilipin (Peri) A is a lipid droplet-associated phosphoprotein that acts dually as a suppressor of basal (constitutive) lipolysis and as an enhancer of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-stimulated lipolysis by both hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and non-HSL(s). To identify domains of Peri A that mediate these multiple actions, we introduced(More)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular neutral lipase that is capable of hydrolyzing triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters, as well as other lipid and water soluble substrates. HSL activity is regulated post-translationally by phosphorylation and also by pretranslational mechanisms. The enzyme is highly(More)
Hormonally stimulated lipolysis occurs by activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) which phosphorylates hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and increases adipocyte lipolysis. Evidence suggests that catecholamines not only can activate PKA, but also the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We now(More)
Insulin resistance was quantified with two different methods in 30 subjects with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. One method, the insulin suppression test, is performed by continuously infusing epinephrine, propranolol, insulin, and glucose. Epinephrine and propranolol suppress endogenous insulin release, and steady-state plasma levels of exogenous(More)
Perilipin (Peri) A is a phosphoprotein located at the surface of intracellular lipid droplets in adipocytes. Activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) results in the phosphorylation of Peri A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), the predominant lipase in adipocytes, with concurrent stimulation of adipocyte lipolysis. To investigate the relative(More)
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular lipase that plays an important role in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in adipose tissue. HSL has been shown to interact with adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP), a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins that bind fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. The current studies have(More)