Fredne Speights

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BACKGROUND Thyroid nodules are a common occurrence in clinical practice today. Most nodules are benign and can be managed nonoperatively with careful medical follow-up. However surgical extirpation occasionally becomes necessary to exclude a malignant neoplastic process. Although the majority of surgically excised thyroid lesions are histologically benign,(More)
BACKGROUND Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the(More)
BACKGROUND The traditional thyroidectomy technique typically approaches the thyroid through a range of different sized transverse incisions in the neck. Such a scar can result in hypesthesias, paresthesias, and increased patient self-awareness. Furthermore, in some patients of darker-skin ethnicity, the traditional neck incision can result in hyperplastic(More)
BACKGROUND Minimal access surgery for thyroid and parathyroid disease has gained increasing popularity due to excellent endoscopic visualization and overall cosmetic outcome. Most current techniques limit the size of the gland that can be removed to less than 4 cm. Patients with multinodular goiter with gland size greater than 4 cm commonly present for(More)
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