Frederik W van Ginkel

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Intranasal infection of mice with certain strains of capsular group 19 Streptococcus pneumoniae can result in focal pneumonia in the absence of bacteremia. Using this model of murine pneumonia, we demonstrated that immunization with recombinant forms of either pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or PdB (a genetically detoxified derivative of pneumolysin)(More)
A novel nontoxic form of chimeric mucosal adjuvant that combines the A subunit of mutant cholera toxin E112K with the pentameric B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was constructed by use of the Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system (mCTA/LTB). Nasal immunization of mice with tetanus toxoid (TT) plus mCTA/LTB(More)
We compared detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in tears and trachea of IBV-infected chickens and found that quantitative detection of IBV RNA in tears is more sensitive than in tracheal homogenates. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IBV contained in chicken lachrymal fluid is infectious and that tears of(More)
In the development of mucosal vaccines, cholera toxin (CT) has been shown to be an effective adjuvant and to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses via a Th2 cell-dependent pathway. However, a major concern for use of mucosal adjuvants such as CT is that this molecule is not suitable for use in humans because of its innate toxicity. Recent(More)
We and others have reported that neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) may exert direct anti-inflammatory activity. This action has been attributed, in part, to T-cell suppression. However, how T-cells become suppressed by NSCs remains unresolved. In this study, we explored one of these mechanisms and challenged some previously advanced hypotheses regarding(More)
We investigated the significance of differing proportions of specific subpopulations among commercial Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva poultry industry (DPI) vaccines with regard to vaccination outcome. Two ArkDPI-derived vaccines that contain a higher proportion of viruses with S1 genes that become selected during replication in chickens exhibited more rapid(More)
Protective properties of three distinct infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Ark Delmarva poultry industry (ArkDPI) S1 proteins encoded from replication-defective recombinant adenovirus vectors were investigated. Using a suboptimal dose of each recombinant virus, we demonstrated that IBV S1 amino acid sequences showing > or = 95.8% amino acid identity to the(More)
Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue's (CALT) role in generating avian mucosal adaptive immunity was measured by analyzing cellular composition, expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and production of cytokines and antibodies in chickens ocular exposed to a replication-deficient adenovirus of serotype 5 (Ad5). These studies(More)
OBJECTIVE Human C-reactive protein (CRP) binds apoptotic cells and alters blood clearance of injected chromatin in mice. To test whether CRP participates in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we examined disease development in lupus-prone (NZB x NZW)F(1) (NZB/NZW) mice expressing a human CRP transgene (hCRPtg/BW). METHODS Mortality(More)
Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) shows extensive genotypic and phenotypic variability. The evolutionary process involves generation of genetic diversity by mutations and recombination followed by replication of those phenotypes favored by selection. In the current study, we examined changes occurring in a wild Arkansas (Ark) challenge strain in(More)