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Injecting drug users (IDUs) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDUs are for the heterosexual(More)
Recent experimental advances have allowed the estimation of the in vivo rates of killing of infected target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We present several refinements to a method applied previously to quantify killing of targets in the spleen using a dynamical model. We reanalyse data previously used to estimate killing rates of CTL specific for(More)
Secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), such as lymph nodes and the spleen, display a complex micro-architecture. In the T cell zone the micro-architecture is provided by a network of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) and their filaments. The FRC network is thought to enhance the interaction between immune cells and their cognate antigen. However, the effect of(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are important immune effectors against intra-cellular pathogens. These cells search for infected cells and kill them. Recently developed experimental methods in combination with mathematical models allow for the quantification of the efficacy of CTL killing in vivo and, hence, for the estimation of parameters that characterize(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are important agents in the control of intracellular pathogens, which specifically recognize and kill infected cells. Recently developed experimental methods allow the estimation of the CTL's efficacy in detecting and clearing infected host cells. One method, the in vivo killing assay, utilizes the adoptive transfer of antigen(More)
UNLABELLED During the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection, polyfunctional CD8+ T cell responses, which are characterized by a high frequency of cells able to secrete multiple cytokines simultaneously, are associated with lower virus loads and slower disease progression. This relationship may arise for different reasons. Polyfunctional responses may simply be(More)
Understanding the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions and antibodies (Ab) produced during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) is critical for defining antibody antiviral capabilities. Antibodies that bind virions may prevent transmission by neutralization of virus or mechanically prevent HIV-1 migration through mucosal layers.(More)
BACKGROUND Human systemic antibody responses to commensal microbiota are not well characterised during health and disease. Of particular interest is the analysis of their potential modulation caused by chronic HIV-1 infection which is associated with sustained enteropathy and systemic B cell disturbances reflected by impaired B cell responses and chronic B(More)
Hyperactivation of T cells, particularly of CD8(+) T cells, is a hallmark of chronic HIV 1 (HIV-1) infection. Little is known about the antigenic specificities and the mechanisms by which HIV-1 causes activation of CD8(+) T cells during chronic infection. We report that CD8(+) T cells were activated during in vivo HIV-1 replication irrespective of their Ag(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) predominantly infects hepatocytes, but many hepatocytes are not infected; studies have shown that HCV antigens cluster within the liver. We investigated spatial distribution and determinants of HCV replication in human liver samples. METHODS We analyzed liver samples from 4 patients with chronic HCV infection(More)