Frederico Guilherme Graeff

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Behavioral categories were measured in rats left on an elevated plus-maze for 5 min, in addition to the traditional measures. Four independent factors emerged from a factor analysis. The variables that loaded highly and positively on Factor 1, seemingly related with anxiety, were: number of entries onto open arms, time spent on open arms, percentage of(More)
In order to assess the presence of anxiolytic properties in cannabidiol (CBD) the drug was tested in an elevated plus-maze model of anxiety, in rats. Doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg significantly increased the entry ratio (open/total number of entries), an anxiolytic-like effect. CBD at a dose of 20.0 mg/kg was no longer effective. None of the doses of CBD(More)
Anxiety disorders are heterogeneous and existing animal models do not discriminate specific types of anxiety. The elevated T-maze is being developed to fulfill this purpose. The apparatus consists of three elevated arms, one enclosed and two open. Inhibitory avoidance--representing learned fear--is measured by recording the time taken to leave the enclosed(More)
There are conflicting results on the function of 5-HT in anxiety and depression. To reconcile this evidence, Deakin and Graeff have suggested that the ascending 5-HT pathway that originates in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and innervates the amygdala and frontal cortex facilitates conditioned fear, while the DRN-periventricular pathway innervating the(More)
The effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol (CBD) on healthy volunteers submitted to a simulated public speaking (SPS) test were compared with those of the anxiolytic benzodiazepine diazepam and placebo. Four independent groups of 10 subjects received, under a double-blind design, placebo or one of the following drugs: CBD (300 mg), diazepam (10 mg) or(More)
In rats placed in a T maze consisting of an enclosed arm at right angles with two open arms elevated 50 cm above the ground, ip doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg diazepam (DZP) abolished the delay of withdrawal from the enclosed arm towards the open arms, measured by retesting in the presence of the drug soon after training, as well as by further retesting 72 h later,(More)
1. There is suggestive evidence that the septo-hippocampal system and the amygdala are involved in risk assessment behavior, a response to potential threat possibly related to anxiety. In addition, experimental results have been reported implicating the medial hypothalamus in coordinated escape, while the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and the median(More)
To study the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes in anxiety, the behavioral effects of drugs that either block or stimulate these receptors were measured in an animal model of anxiety, the elevated T-maze. One arm of the maze is enclosed by walls and stands perpendicular to the two open arms. Inhibitory (passive) avoidance--representing learned(More)