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Behavioral categories were measured in rats left on an elevated plus-maze for 5 min, in addition to the traditional measures. Four independent factors emerged from a factor analysis. The variables that loaded highly and positively on Factor 1, seemingly related with anxiety, were: number of entries onto open arms, time spent on open arms, percentage of(More)
There are conflicting results on the function of 5-HT in anxiety and depression. To reconcile this evidence, Deakin and Graeff have suggested that the ascending 5-HT pathway that originates in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and innervates the amygdala and frontal cortex facilitates conditioned fear, while the DRN-periventricular pathway innervating the(More)
Anxiety disorders are heterogeneous and existing animal models do not discriminate specific types of anxiety. The elevated T-maze is being developed to fulfill this purpose. The apparatus consists of three elevated arms, one enclosed and two open. Inhibitory avoidance--representing learned fear--is measured by recording the time taken to leave the enclosed(More)
The elevated T-maze is an animal model of anxiety, consisting of three elevated arms: one enclosed and two open. Inhibitory avoidance of the open arms-representing learned fear-has been related to generalized anxiety and the unconditioned escape from one of the open arms to panic. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic (21(More)
In order to assess the presence of anxiolytic properties in cannabidiol (CBD) the drug was tested in an elevated plus-maze model of anxiety, in rats. Doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg significantly increased the entry ratio (open/total number of entries), an anxiolytic-like effect. CBD at a dose of 20.0 mg/kg was no longer effective. None of the doses of CBD(More)
In an attempt to analyze different types of anxiety, and at the same time assess memory, a new experimental model was developed. The apparatus, named the elevated T-maze, consisted of three arms of equal dimensions (50 x 10 cm) elevated 50 cm from the ground. One arm, enclosed by 40-cm high walls, was perpendicular to two open arms. The first experimental(More)
  • F G Graeff
  • 1994
1. There is suggestive evidence that the septo-hippocampal system and the amygdala are involved in risk assessment behavior, a response to potential threat possibly related to anxiety. In addition, experimental results have been reported implicating the medial hypothalamus in coordinated escape, while the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and the median(More)
Pharmacological results obtained in animals tested in approach/avoidance conflict situations have led to the suggestion that 5-HT enhances anxiety by acting on forebrain structures. In contrast, results with intracerebral drug injection associated with aversive electrical brain stimulation indicate that 5-HT inhibits aversion in the dorsal periaqueductal(More)
A factor analysis of the scores from rats given two trials in the elevated plus-maze showed that four independent factors emerged. Measures of anxiolytic activity on trial 1 (number of open arm entries and time spent on open arms) loaded on factor 1, measures of anxiolytic activity on trial 2 loaded on factor 2, the measure of general activity (number of(More)