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The curling of a graphitic sheet to form carbon nanotubes produces a class of materials that seem to have extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties. In particular, the high elastic modulus of the graphite sheets means that the nanotubes might be stiffer and stronger than any other known material, with beneficial consequences for their application(More)
A common measure of effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need and have sought a measure that is reliable, valid, sensitive, and objective. We(More)
The nanoManipulator system adds a virtual reality interface to an atomic force microscope (AFM), thus providing a tool that enables the user not only to image but also to manipulate nanometer-sized molecular structures. As the AFM tip scans the surface of these structures, the tip-sample interaction forces are monitored, which in turn provide information(More)
In a paradigm in which rats would both initiate and terminate hypothalamic stimulation, "purely" rewarding lateral hypothalamic and "purely" aversive medial hypothalamic electrodes were identified. Subjects were then given a series of tests designed to assess the effects of brain stimulation on approach and withdrawal behaviors. Lateral hypothalamic(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Persistent deficits in gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry are prevalent following stroke and can limit the achievement of community mobility goals. Rehabilitation can improve gait speed, but has shown limited ability to improve spatiotemporal symmetry. The incorporation of combined visual and proprioceptive feedback regarding(More)
Understanding the relative motion of objects in contact is essential for controlling macroscopic lubrication and adhesion, for comprehending biological macromolecular interfaces, and for developing submicrometre-scale electromechanical devices. An object undergoing lateral motion while in contact with a second object can either roll or slide. The resulting(More)
We investigated the gastric acid secretory and motility responses to microinjection into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) of RX 77368, a stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, and bicuculline, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist in ketamine-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Gastric acid output was collected every 15(More)
Slow gait speed and interlimb asymmetry are prevalent in a variety of disorders. Current approaches to locomotor retraining emphasize the need for appropriate feedback during intensive, task-specific practice. This paper describes the design and feasibility testing of the integrated virtual environment rehabilitation treadmill (IVERT) system intended to(More)