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Manipulation in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the haptic contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and their manipulanda. To compensate for this lack, we propose exploiting the one real object every user has in a virtual environment, his body. We present a unified(More)
A study by Slater, et al., [1995] indicated that naive subjects in an immersive virtual environment experience a higher subjective sense of presence when they locomote by walking-in-place (virtual walking) than when they pushbutton fly (along the floor plane). We replicated their study, adding real walking as a third condition. Our study confirmed their(More)
A common measure of the quality or effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the mount of <i>presence</i> it evokes in users. Presence is often defined as the sense of <i>being there</i> in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need, and have sought, a measure that is <b>reliable, valid,(More)
To compare and evaluate locomotion interfaces for users who are (virtually) moving on foot in VEs, we performed a study to characterize task behavior and task performance with different visual and locomotion interfaces. In both a computer-generated environment and a corresponding real environment, study participants walked to targets on walls and stopped as(More)
Many Virtual Environments require walking interfaces to explore virtual worlds much larger than available real-world tracked space. We present a model for generating virtual locomotion speeds from Walking-In-Place (WIP) inputs based on walking biomechanics. By employing gait principles, our model - called Gait-Understanding-Driven Walking-In-Place (GUD WIP)(More)
Manipulation in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the haptic contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and the objects they are manipulating. To compensate for this lack, I propose exploiting the one real object every user has in a virtual environment, his body. I present a(More)
One of the most disconcertingly unnatural properties of most virtual environments (VEs) is the ability of the user to pass through objects. I hypothesize that passive haptics, augmenting a high-fidelity visual virtual environment with low-fidelity physical objects, will markedly improve both sense of presence and spatial knowledge training transfer. The(More)