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Manipulation in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the haptic contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and their manipulanda. To compensate for this lack, we propose exploiting the one real object every user has in a virtual environment, his body. We present a unified(More)
We propose the idea of simplification envelopes for generating a hierarchy of level-of-detail approximations for a given polygonal model. Our approach guarantees that all points of an approximation are within a user-specifiable distance from the original model and that all points of the original model are within a distance from the approximation.(More)
Many Virtual Environments require walking interfaces to explore virtual worlds much larger than available real-world tracked space. We present a model for generating virtual locomotion speeds from Walking-In-Place (WIP) inputs based on walking biomechanics. By employing gait principles, our model – called Gait-Understanding-Driven Walking-In-Place (GUD WIP)(More)
Two strategies, pre-computation before display and adaptive refinement during display, are used to combine interactivity with high image quality in a virtual building simulation. Pre-computation is used in two ways. The hidden-surface problem is partially solved by automatically pre-computing potentially visible sets of the model for sets of related(More)
A study by Slater, et al., [1995] indicated that naive subjects in an immersive virtual environment experience a higher subjective sense of presence when they locomote by walking-in-place (virtual walking) than when they pushbutton fly (along the floor plane). We replicated their study, adding real walking as a third condition. Our study confirmed their(More)
A common measure of the quality or effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the mount of <i>presence</i> it evokes in users. Presence is often defined as the sense of <i>being there</i> in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need, and have sought, a measure that is <b>reliable, valid,(More)
Previous research has shown that even low end-to-end latency can have adverse effects on performance in virtual environments (VE). This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effect of latency on other metrics of VE effectiveness: physiological response, simulator sickness, and self-reported sense of presence. The VE used in the study includes two(More)
A common measure of effectiveness of a virtual environment (VE) is the amount of presence it evokes in users. Presence is commonly defined as the sense of being there in a VE. There has been much debate about the best way to measure presence, and presence researchers need and have sought a measure that is reliable, valid, sensitive, and objective. We(More)