Frederick Naftolin

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Neuropeptide Y, produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the central regulation of anterior pituitary and appetitive functions. The pleiotropic nature of neuropeptide Y in these mechanisms indicates the existence of heterogeneity in the hypothalamic neuronal population producing neuropeptide Y. In this study, we report the(More)
CONTEXT Preclinical studies suggest that estrogen affects neural structure and function in mature animals; clinical studies are less conclusive with many, but not all, studies showing a positive influence of estrogen on verbal memory in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal(More)
Observational studies have indicated that hormone therapy given at or after menopause is linked to substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, however, indicate that combined estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy, as well as estrogen-alone hormone therapy(More)
BACKGROUND High doses of estrogen can promote tumor regression in postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the molecular basis of this process by using LTED cells, which were derived by growing MCF-7 breast cancer cells under long-term (6-24 months) estrogen-deprived conditions. METHODS We(More)
The influence of gonadal steroids on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-like immunoreactivity was assessed in the rat arcuate nucleus, an area of the hypothalamus that regulates pituitary secretion. IGF-I-like immunoreactivity was observed in hypothalamic cells with the morphological aspects of tanycytes and astrocytes. The surface density of IGF-I-like(More)
Despite the mechanical blood-brain barrier, activated T-cells can cross brain vessels. Thus, the CNS is routinely surveyed by immune competent cells; yet the healthy brain is not a target of antigen-specific immune reactions. Therefore, mechanisms must exist to prevent brain-antigen-specific T-cells from inducing immune responses. Data indicate that(More)
Astroglia are targets for estrogen and testosterone and are apparently involved in the action of sex steroids on the brain. Sex hormones induce changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, the growth of astrocytic processes, and the degree of apposition of astroglial processes to neuronal membranes in the rat hypothalamus. These changes are(More)
It is now obvious that the CNS is capable of undergoing a variety of plastic changes at all stages of development. Although the magnitude and distribution of these changes may be more dramatic in the immature animal, the adult brain retains a remarkable capacity for undergoing morphological and functional modifications. Throughout development, as well as in(More)
Recent studies suggest that sex differences in cognitive function may involve effects of circulating androgens on the developing cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The mechanism of these effects is not understood. In rhesus monkeys, aromatase activity is present in the hippocampus and several areas of the cerebral cortex during late fetal and early postnatal(More)