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Neuropeptide Y, produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the central regulation of anterior pituitary and appetitive functions. The pleiotropic nature of neuropeptide Y in these mechanisms indicates the existence of heterogeneity in the hypothalamic neuronal population producing neuropeptide Y. In this study, we report the… (More)
The study reported here examined the effects of a phytoestrogen diet on progestin receptor induction, vaginal opening, and the onset and maintenance of vaginal cycles in developing female rats. A natural dietary concentration (0.01%) of the isoflavonoid coumestrol was incorporated into the AIN semipurified diet and fed from 21 to 24 days (acute treatment)… (More)
A double-label electron microscopic immunostaining procedure was employed to examine the interconnections of glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)- and LHRH-immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic area of the rat. The results provide ultrastructural evidence that GABA-ergic neurons establish symmetric (Gray II) synapses on LHRH neurons.
CONTEXT Preclinical studies suggest that estrogen affects neural structure and function in mature animals; clinical studies are less conclusive with many, but not all, studies showing a positive influence of estrogen on verbal memory in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of estrogen on brain activation patterns in postmenopausal… (More)
Observational studies have indicated that hormone therapy given at or after menopause is linked to substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, however, indicate that combined estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy, as well as estrogen-alone hormone therapy… (More)
This chapter reviews the reproductive actions of phytoestrogens, comparing mechanisms of action, dose-response relationships, and human exposures. Although a wide range of biochemical actions have been reported for phytoestrogens, in vitro tests suggest that phytoestrogens may be more likely to act through receptor-mediated mechanisms than through enzyme… (More)
During the estrous cycle there is a phasic synaptic remodelling in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, consisting in a loss and regain of axo-somatic synapses during the 48 h period between the morning of proestrus and the morning of metestrus. Synaptic changes are accompanied by cyclic modifications in the number of intramembrane particles in the plasma… (More)
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) assessed the long-term effects of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. The WHI started HT treatment on women aged 50-79 years in order to ascertain these effects. The study was ended early, due to findings of increased risk of coronary heart disease, breast cancer, stroke, and thromboembolic complications in… (More)
Sexual differentiation of reproductive and behavior patterns is largely effected by hormones produced by the gonads. In many higher vertebrates, an integral part of this process is the induction of permanent and essentially irreversible sex differences in central nervous function, in response to gonadal hormones secreted early in development.