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General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all(More)
To achieve efficient communication between distributed real-time processes, it is desirable to both choose the best protocol for each communication path and limit variation to improve software portability. These divergent goals can be satisfied through the use of a uniform application programming interface (API) that hides the details of specific protocols(More)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working to improve the information technology (IT) security of networked digital control systems used in industrial applications. This effort is being carried out through the Process Control Security Requirements Forum (PCSRF), an industry group organized under the National Information Assurance(More)
A major impediment to improving the performance and functionality of machine tools is the limited access that users or third parties have to the internals of the machine controller. This limit has suppressed the emergence of a community of third-party vendors who could provide a wide range of applications at competitive prices. The result is that users are(More)