Frederick M. Hecht

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CONTEXT Differentiating individuals with early human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection from those infected for longer periods is difficult but important for estimating HIV incidence and for purposes of clinical care and prevention. OBJECTIVE To develop and validate a serologic testing algorithm in which HIV-1-positive persons with reactive test(More)
Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between adherence, viral suppression and antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed people on protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. DESIGN AND SETTING A cross-sectional analysis of subjects in an observational prospective cohort systematically sampled from free meal lines, homeless shelters(More)
The pathogenesis of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is characterized by CD4(+) T cell depletion and chronic T cell activation, leading ultimately to AIDS. CD4(+) T helper (T(H)) cells provide protective immunity and immune regulation through different immune cell functional subsets, including T(H)1, T(H)2, T regulatory (T(reg)), and interleukin-17(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
A sequence-independent PCR amplification method was used to identify viral nucleic acids in the plasma samples of 25 individuals presenting with symptoms of acute viral infection following high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. GB virus C/hepatitis G virus was identified in three individuals and hepatitis B virus in one(More)
Although generalized T-cell activation is an important factor in chronic HIV disease pathogenesis, its role in primary infection remains poorly defined. To investigate the effect of immune activation on T-cell changes in subjects with early HIV infection, and to test the hypothesis that an immunologic activation "set point" is established early in the(More)
HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical(More)
CONTEXT Transmission of multiclass drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may increase with wider use of antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVE To determine trends in prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected individuals in a geographic area with a high penetration of antiviral treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS(More)
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined.(More)