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BACKGROUND The recent outbreaks of avian influenza (H5N1) have placed a renewed emphasis on preparing for an influenza pandemic in humans. Of particular concern in this planning is the allocation of resources, such as ventilators and antiviral medications, which will likely become scarce during a pandemic. METHODS We applied a collaborative process using(More)
BACKGROUND Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. METHODS Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498), who were born(More)
Disaster management utilizes diverse technologies to accomplish a complex set of tasks. Despite a decade of experience, few published reports have reviewed application of telemedicine (clinical care at a distance enabled by telecommunication) in disaster situations. Appropriate new telemedicine applications can improve future disaster medicine outcomes,(More)
INTRODUCTION The potential for disasters exists in all communities. To mitigate the potential catastrophes that confront humanity in the new millennium, an evidence-based approach to disaster management is required urgently. This study moves toward such an evidence-based approach by identifying peer-reviewed publications following a range of disasters and(More)
BACKGROUND In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and(More)
The accurate interpretation of mortality surveys in humanitarian crises is useful for both public health responses and security responses. Recent examples suggest that few medical personnel and researchers can accurately interpret the validity of a mortality survey in these settings. Using an example of a mortality survey from the Democratic Republic of(More)
During the past decade, the military, space programs, and various governmental agencies have progressively developed telemedicine applications and tested them in real and simulated civilian disaster emergencies. This paper reviews the history of telemedicine activities during actual disasters and related situations, provides insight into issues that must be(More)
The World Health Organization estimates that the burden of surgical disease due to war, self-inflicted injuries, and road traffic incidents will rise dramatically by 2020. During the 2009 Harvard Humanitarian Initiative's Humanitarian Action Summit (HHI/HAS),members of the Burden of Surgical Disease Working Group met to review the state of surgical(More)
It is common for international organizations to provide surgical corrective care to vulnerable populations in developing countries. However, a current worsening of the overall surgical burden of disease in developing countries reflects an increasing lack of sufficient numbers of trained healthcare personnel, and renders outside volunteer assistance more(More)
BACKGROUND Two separate but complementary epidemiologic surveillance methods for human stampedes have emerged since the publication of the topic in 2009. The objective of this study is to estimate the degree of underreporting in India. METHOD The Ngai Search Method was compared to the Roy Search Method for human stampede events occurring in India between(More)