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BACKGROUND The recent outbreaks of avian influenza (H5N1) have placed a renewed emphasis on preparing for an influenza pandemic in humans. Of particular concern in this planning is the allocation of resources, such as ventilators and antiviral medications, which will likely become scarce during a pandemic. METHODS We applied a collaborative process using(More)
BACKGROUND Little is factually known about the burden of surgical disease and less is known about global surgical provision of care for diseases that may be treated, cured, or palliated by a surgical intervention. Despite the lack of information, surgical interventions are provided by a variety of agencies every day in the developing world. This literature(More)
INTRODUCTION On 21 September, 1999, an earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale, struck central Taiwan near the town of Chi-Chi. The event resulted in 2,405 deaths and 11,306 injuries. Ad hoc emergency medical assistance teams (EMATs) from Taiwan assumed the responsibility for initiating early assessments and providing medical care. OBJECTIVE To(More)
If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal.(More)
Humanitarian medical assistance and intervention during the civil war in Bosnia and Croatia was felt by national health workers to be relatively ineffective (2.8 on a 5-point Likert scale), compared to other forms of humanitarian assistance such as medical supplies (4.4/5) and non-medical materials (3.9/5). Bosnian physicians treating civilians noted that(More)
BACKGROUND Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. METHODS Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498), who were born(More)
Both the naturally occurring and deliberate release of a biological agent in a population can bring catastrophic consequences. Although these bioevents have similarities with other disasters, there also are major differences, especially in the approach to triage management of surge capacity resources. Conventional mass-casualty events use uniform methods(More)
OBJECTIVE Humanitarian surgery is often organized and delivered with short notice and limited time for developing unique strategies for providing care. While some surgical pathologies can be anticipated by the nature of the crisis, the role of foreign medical teams in treating the existing and unmet burden of surgical disease during crises is unclear. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Emerging data demonstrate that a large fraction of the global burden of disease is amenable to surgical intervention. There is a paucity of data related to delivery of surgical care in low- and middle-income countries, and no aggregate data describe the efforts of international organizations to provide surgical care in these settings. This study(More)
The incident command system provides an organizational structure at the agency, discipline, or jurisdiction level for effectively coordinating response and recovery efforts during most conventional disasters. This structure does not have the capacity or capability to manage the complexities of a large-scale health-related disaster, especially a pandemic, in(More)