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There is remarkable conservation in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune responses of plants, insects and mammals. We developed an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cell system based on the induction of early-defence gene transcription by flagellin, a highly conserved component of bacterial flagella that functions as a(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) mediates plant defences against pathogens, accumulating in both infected and distal leaves in response to pathogen attack. Pathogenesis-related gene expression and the synthesis of defensive compounds associated with both local and systemic acquired resistance (LAR and SAR) in plants require SA. In Arabidopsis, exogenous application of(More)
Chloroplast development requires coordinate nuclear and chloroplast gene expression. A putative signal from the chloroplast couples the transcription of certain nuclear genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins with chloroplast function. We have identified at least three Arabidopsis nuclear genes (GUN1, GUN2, and GUN3) necessary for coupling the(More)
To discover which components of plant defense responses make significant contributions to limiting pathogen attack, we screened a mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for individuals that exhibit increased susceptibility to the moderately virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326). The 12 enhanced disease(More)
Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a(More)
The PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the DAF-2-DAF-16 insulin signaling pathway control Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal innate immunity. pmk-1 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced sensitivity to pathogens, while daf-2 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced resistance to pathogens that requires upregulation of the DAF-16(More)
The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. This report describes the isolation of PAD4. The predicted PAD4 protein sequence displays similarity to(More)
In plants, resistance to a pathogen is frequently correlated with a genetically defined interaction between a plant resistance gene and a corresponding pathogen avirulence gene. A simple model explains these gene-for-gene interactions: avirulence gene products generate signals (ligands), and resistance genes encode cognate receptors. The A. thaliana RPS2(More)
We have developed a method for constructing genomic libraries enriched for telomeric DNA sequences, enabling the isolation of telomeres from higher eukaryotic organisms with large chromosomes. The method was used to clone telomeric DNA sequences from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A. thaliana telomeres are composed primarily of tandemly repeated(More)
BACKGROUND Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an important opportunistic human pathogen. Generally, the acquisition of genes in the form of pathogenicity islands distinguishes pathogenic isolates from nonpathogens. We therefore sequenced a highly virulent strain of P. aeruginosa, PA14, and compared it with a previously(More)