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There is remarkable conservation in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune responses of plants, insects and mammals. We developed an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cell system based on the induction of early-defence gene transcription by flagellin, a highly conserved component of bacterial flagella that functions as a(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) mediates plant defences against pathogens, accumulating in both infected and distal leaves in response to pathogen attack. Pathogenesis-related gene expression and the synthesis of defensive compounds associated with both local and systemic acquired resistance (LAR and SAR) in plants require SA. In Arabidopsis, exogenous application of(More)
A set of mapping markers have been designed for Arabidopsis thaliana that correspond to DNA fragments amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ecotype of origin of these amplified fragments can be determined by cleavage with a restriction endonuclease. Specifically, 18 sets of PCR primers were synthesized, each of which amplifies a single(More)
Chloroplast development requires coordinate nuclear and chloroplast gene expression. A putative signal from the chloroplast couples the transcription of certain nuclear genes encoding photosynthesis-related proteins with chloroplast function. We have identified at least three Arabidopsis nuclear genes (GUN1, GUN2, and GUN3) necessary for coupling the(More)
We have developed a method for constructing genomic libraries enriched for telomeric DNA sequences, enabling the isolation of telomeres from higher eukaryotic organisms with large chromosomes. The method was used to clone telomeric DNA sequences from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A. thaliana telomeres are composed primarily of tandemly repeated(More)
Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a(More)
The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. This report describes the isolation of PAD4. The predicted PAD4 protein sequence displays similarity to(More)
To discover which components of plant defense responses make significant contributions to limiting pathogen attack, we screened a mutagenized population of Arabidopsis thaliana for individuals that exhibit increased susceptibility to the moderately virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326). The 12 enhanced disease(More)
The PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the DAF-2-DAF-16 insulin signaling pathway control Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal innate immunity. pmk-1 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced sensitivity to pathogens, while daf-2 loss-of-function mutants have enhanced resistance to pathogens that requires upregulation of the DAF-16(More)
Eleven loci that play a role in the synthesis of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are described. Mutations at these loci, collectively named transparent testa (tt), disrupt the synthesis of brown pigments in the seed coat (testa). Several of these loci (tt3, tt4, tt5 and ttg) are also required for the accumulation of purple anthocyanins in leaves and stems and one(More)