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The practice of toxicology is changing rapidly, as demonstrated by the response to the 2007 NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21(st) Century." New assays are being developed to replace animal testing; yet the use of data from these assays in decision making is not clear. A Health and Environmental Sciences Institute committee held a May 2011 workshop(More)
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of Penicillium and Aspergillus species which are likely natural contaminants of various foods. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lifetime administration of patulin in FDRL Wistar rats. Animals received patulin by gastric intubation three times per week at the level of 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and(More)
The kallikrein-kinin system regulates water and sodium excretion and thus plays a role in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking the gene encoding for the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2-KO) have a greater hypertensive response to chronic high Na+ intake (salt sensitivity) compared to controls. We also obtained dose-response(More)
We have tested the vasoactive effects of kinins in addition to various other endothelium-dependent or independent agonists in the arterial and venous perfused mesenteric circuits of the mouse. Bradykinin (0.1 pmol-100 nmol), but not des-Arg9-bradykinin (10 nmol) induced a dose-dependent vasodilation of the precontracted arterial and venous mesenteric(More)
Harding-Passey melanoma cells in monolayer culture (HPM-73 line) were treated during exponential growth phase with single doses of X-rays (85 kV) from 2 up to 16 Gy (200 to 1600 rd). While 2 or 4 Gy resulted in a growth retardation (up to 2 days) followed by resumption of proliferation thereafter, 8 Gy, and still more pronounced 16 Gy, resulted in a(More)
In the present case an 81-year-old patient was operated upon for a suspected atraumatic spleen rupture. During the operation a spleen abscess was found. Histological examination of the removed spleen revealed an Echinococcus multilocularis infection. There was no sign of further organ involvement: surprisingly the liver was not affected. Case history,(More)
Two types of portasystemic shunts were investigated in the rat; low pressure shunts (portacaval shunt, PCS, and portacaval transposition, PCT) and a high pressure shunts (Portasystemic shunt by ligation of the portal vein after splenic transposition, PSSL). liver atrophy was seen in all groups but PCT. Simplification of intestinal villi was observed in all(More)
Weight of evidence (WoE) approaches are recommended for interpreting various toxicological data, but few systematic and transparent procedures exist. A hypothesis-based WoE framework was recently published focusing on the U.S. EPA's Tier 1 Endocrine Screening Battery (ESB) as an example. The framework recommends weighting each experimental endpoint(More)