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Currently, little is known about the viral kinetics of influenza A during infection within an individual. We utilize a series of mathematical models of increasing complexity, which incorporate target cell limitation and the innate interferon response, to examine influenza A virus kinetics in the upper respiratory tracts of experimentally infected adults.(More)
The writing committee consisted of the following: John H. Beigel, M.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.; Jeremy Farrar, D.Phil., Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Aye Maung Han, M.B., B.S., Department of Child Health, Institute of Medicine, Yangon, Myanmar;(More)
To further understand the role of cytokine responses in symptom formation and host defenses in influenza infection, we determined the levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-alpha, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha in nasal lavage fluid, plasma, and serum obtained serially from 19 volunteers experimentally infected with influenza A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1) and correlated(More)
CONTEXT The common cold is one of the most frequently occurring illnesses and is responsible for substantial morbidity and economic loss. Biochemical evidence suggests that zinc may be an effective treatment, and zinc gluconate glycine (ZGG) lozenges have been shown to reduce the duration of cold symptoms in adults. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of(More)
The authors conducted a 2-year, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy field trial of live, attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenza vaccine administered by nasal spray to children 15-71 months old. Overall, vaccine was 92% efficacious at preventing culture-confirmed infection by influenza A/H3N2 and influenza B. Because influenza(More)
A model was developed for the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses during a closed population influenza epidemic that occurs in a single wave. The model was used to consider several treatment and chemoprophylaxis strategies and to determine their effects on the spread of the infection. The model predicts frequent emergence and transmission of(More)
BACKGROUND Oral oseltamivir administration is effective treatment for influenza in adults. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oseltamivir in children with influenza. METHODS In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, children 1 through 12 years with fever [> or =100 degrees F (> or =38 degrees(More)
BACKGROUND Oseltamivir is an effective inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase. Although viruses resistant to oseltamivir emerge less frequently than those resistant to amantadine or rimantadine, information on oseltamivir-resistant viruses arising during clinical use of the drug in children is limited. Our aim was to investigate oseltamivir resistance(More)
CONTEXT Previous studies have shown oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor, to be effective in preventing influenza and treating experimental influenza. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in the treatment of naturally acquired influenza infection. DESIGN Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study conducted January(More)
Human rhinovirus (HRV) accounts for a significant portion of common-cold illness, with the peak incidence being in the early fall. Three hundred forty-six adults who had self-diagnosed colds of 48 h or less were enrolled in a study during September and October 1994 to determine the frequency and clinical course of HRV infections. Nasal wash specimens for(More)