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BACKGROUND Sickle-cell anaemia is associated with substantial morbidity from acute complications and organ dysfunction beginning in the first year of life. Hydroxycarbamide substantially reduces episodes of pain and acute chest syndrome, admissions to hospital, and transfusions in adults with sickle-cell anaemia. We assessed the effect of hydroxycarbamide(More)
CONTEXT Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness causing progressive deterioration in quality of life. Brain dysfunction may be the most important and least studied problem affecting individuals with this disease. OBJECTIVE To measure neurocognitive dysfunction in neurologically asymptomatic adults with SCA vs healthy control individuals. DESIGN,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the independent and combined contributions of neurocognitive and family functioning to mother-reported behavior problems in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and evaluate the factor structure of the Family Environment Scale (FES) with African American families. METHOD The study sample included 289 children enrolled in the(More)
Manipulated experimentally mothers' verbal behavior during a routine intramuscular injection in order to help clarify the role of nonprocedural talk (distraction) and parental reassurance on children's reaction to the injection. 42 child-mother dyads were recruited from a general pediatric primary care clinic and were randomly assigned to a parental(More)
The relationship between past medical experience and children's response to preparation for medical examinations was investigated in 79 pediatric outpatients aged 3 to 12 years. Children were randomly assigned to one of five preparation conditions prior to receiving a medical examination and a throat culture: sensory information about the exam, training in(More)
PURPOSE Assess the intellectual and academic outcomes as well as risk factors associated with treatment for average-risk medulloblastoma in childhood using 23.4 Gy of craniospinal radiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS From an overall sample of 379 enrolled in the parent study (COG A9961), 110 patients received a total of 192 assessments over(More)
Silent cerebral infarct (SCI) is the most common form of neurologic disease in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). SCI is defined as abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in the setting of a normal neurologic examination without a history or physical findings associated with an overt stroke. SCI occurs in 27% of this population before(More)
We surveyed Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) under sea ice using the autonomous underwater vehicle Autosub-2. Krill were concentrated within a band under ice between 1 and 13 kilometers south of the ice edge. Within this band, krill densities were fivefold greater than that of open water. The under-ice environment has long been considered an important(More)
Observed 47 children ranging in age from 13 months to 7 years 9 months receiving injections as part of a regular visit to a pediatric clinic. Twenty-three children were randomly assigned to a condition with parent (mainly mothers) present and 24 to a condition with parent absent. During the medical procedure, the child's reactions were observed via(More)
Three children, aged 11-14, undergoing cancer chemotherapy were coached in cue-controlled muscle relaxation, controlled breathing, pleasant imagery and positive self-talk during chemotherapy venopunctures. Using a multiple baseline across subjects design, 46-68% reductions from baseline levels of observed behavioral distress during venopunctures were found(More)