Frederick A Spencer

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BACKGROUND This guideline addresses the management of patients who are receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy and require an elective surgery or procedure. METHODS The methods herein follow those discussed in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of stroke varies considerably across different groups of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Antithrombotic prophylaxis for stroke is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. We provide recommendations for antithrombotic treatment based on net clinical benefit for patients with AF at varying levels of stroke risk and in a(More)
BACKGROUND despite the widespread use of electrocardiographic changes to characterize patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, little is known about recent trends in the incidence rates, treatment, and outcomes of patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction further classified according to the presence of ST-segment elevation. The(More)
BACKGROUND Limited information is available about potentially changing and contemporary trends in the incidence and hospital death rates of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. The objectives of our study were to examine 3-decade-long trends (1975 to 2005) in the incidence rates of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial(More)
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is categorized by the U.S. Surgeon General as a major public health problem. VTE is relatively common and associated with reduced survival and substantial health-care costs, and recurs frequently. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and VTE(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence-based cardiac therapies are underutilized in elderly patients. We assessed differences in practice patterns, comorbidities, and in-hospital event rates, by age and type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS We studied 24165 ACS patients in 102 hospitals in 14 countries stratified by age. RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence-based guidelines recommend that acutely ill hospitalized medical patients who are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) should receive prophylaxis. Our aim was to characterize the clinical practices for VTE prophylaxis in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients enrolled in the International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous(More)
BACKGROUND This guideline focuses on long-term administration of antithrombotic drugs designed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, including two new antiplatelet therapies. METHODS The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis(More)
OBJECTIVES This article provides recommendations on the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS We generated treatment recommendations (Grade 1) and suggestions (Grade 2) based on high (A), moderate (B), and low (C) quality evidence. RESULTS In patients with acute ischemic stroke, we recommend IV(More)