Frederick A. A. Kingdom

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We present an algorithm for separating the shading and reflectance images of photographed natural scenes. The algorithm exploits the constraint that in natural scenes chromatic and luminance variations that are co-aligned mainly arise from changes in surface reflectance, whereas near-pure luminance variations mainly arise from shading and shadows. The novel(More)
In natural scenes, chromatic variations, and the luminance variations that are aligned with them, mainly arise from surfaces such as flowers or painted objects. Pure or near-pure luminance variations, on the other hand, mainly arise from inhomogeneous illumination such as shadows or shading. Here, I provide evidence that knowledge of these color-luminance(More)
Modulation frequency and orientation tuning of second-order mechanisms underlying the detection of modulation in local spatial-frequency information are assessed by using an oblique-masking paradigm. Stimuli were Gabor-filtered noise patterns in which the local carrier spatial frequency was modulated about an average value of 4.7 cycles per degree (cpd)(More)
We have measured the sensitivity of the human visual system to sinusoidal modulations of orientation in micropattern-based textured stimuli. The result is the orientation modulation function, or OMF, which describes this sensitivity as a function of the spatial frequency of orientation modulation. We found that the OMF was bandpass with peak sensitivity at(More)
Contrast thresholds for stereoscopic depth identification (crossed or uncrossed) were measured as a function of disparity by use of isoluminant (red-green) and isochromatic (yellow-black) 0.5 cycles/deg Gabor patches. For the purposes of comparison, stimulus contrasts were scaled by their respective detection thresholds. The Gabor patches could be either(More)
The past quarter century has witnessed considerable advances in our understanding of Lightness (perceived reflectance), Brightness (perceived luminance) and perceived Transparency (LBT). This review poses eight major conceptual questions that have engaged researchers during this period, and considers to what extent they have been answered. The questions(More)
Contrast thresholds for stereoscopic depth identification (crossed or uncrossed) were measured as a function of disparity using isoluminant (red-green) and isochromatic (yellow-black) 0.5 c/deg Gabor patches. For the purposes of comparison stimulus contrasts were scaled by their respective detection thresholds. The detection thresholds employed were(More)
Two distinct paradigms have characterized most previous studies of texture perception: one has dealt with texture segregation, the other with the processing of texture gradients. Typically, studies of texture segregation have used stimuli with abrupt textural variations, whereas studies of texture gradient processing have used stimuli with smooth textural(More)
The color vision of Old World primates and humans uses two cone-opponent systems; one differences the outputs of L and M cones forming a red-green (RG) system, and the other differences S cones with a combination of L and M cones forming a blue-yellow (BY) system. In this paper, we show that in human vision these two systems have a differential distribution(More)
Most vision scientists are comfortable with the idea that perception is a multi-level process. For example we take it for granted that the two best understood properties of human colour vision, trichromacy and colour-opponency, are underpinned by physiological mechanisms operating at different stages in the visual pathway. The observation that any colour(More)