Frederic Varaine

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Three outbreaks of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (subgroup III) are described: Niger (1991), Burundi (1992), and Guinea (1993). These outbreaks showed unusual characteristics: a shorter inter-epidemic interval (Niger), unusual geographical location outside the meningitis belt (Burundi and Guinea), and high age-specific attack rates(More)
In most developing countries, bacterial meningitis (BM) is associated with a high case-fatality rate. The search for a simple, convenient, and inexpensive antibiotic treatment remains a priority. In this study, a non-blinded, multicentre, randomised clinical trial of 528 cases of BM was done in two hospitals in Mali and Niger, between March, 1989, and May,(More)
A total of 125 strains of Neisseria meningitidis recovered in the course of outbreaks from patients with systemic disease in 11 African countries between 1989 and 1994 were analysed by serogrouping, serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Of the 125 patient strains 115 (92%) belonged to the clone-complex of serogroup A meningococci, designated(More)
Using current technologies, we have demonstrated in this study that it is theoretically possible to obtain different minor actinide transmutation scenarios with a significant gain on the waste radiotoxicity inventory. The handling of objects with Am+Cm entails the significant increase of penetrating radiation sources (neutron and γ) whatever mixed scenario(More)
Based on the French underway strategy, using PWR and reprocessing with one Pu recycling only, the objectives for the future strategies are to provide solutions allowing a Pu stock-pile stabilisation, a minimization of actinides in the disposal and, also, to provide enough flexibility to launch Gen IV systems. At the CEA, scenarios through a dynamic vision(More)
Meningococcal meningitis epidemics are a major health problem in sub-saharan Africa where they account for thousands of deaths and cause morbidity in hundreds of thousands of people. Meningitis is caused by Neisseria meningitidis. In Africa, epidemic meningitis is primarily due to strains of serogroup A which are responsible for the largest and most recent(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, the control of meningococcal meningitis epidemics relies on early epidemic detection and mass vaccination. However, experience shows that interventions are often initiated too late to have a significant impact on the epidemic. A new recommendation drafted by participants of a consensus meeting proposes an alert threshold and an(More)
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