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The widely used organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos is a suspected neuroteratogen. In the current study, we compared the effects of chlorpyrifos and its major metabolites in two in vitro models, neuronotypic PC12 cells and gliotypic C6 cells. Chlorpyrifos inhibited DNA synthesis in both cell lines but had a greater effect on gliotypic cells. Chlorpyrifos(More)
Developmental neurotoxicity caused by chlorpyrifos exposure is generally thought to target cholinesterase but chlorpyrifos may also act on cellular intermediates, such as adenylyl cyclase, that serve global functions in the coordination of cell development. In the current study, neonatal rats were exposed to apparently subtoxic doses of chlorpyrifos (no(More)
Nearly all smokers begin tobacco use in adolescence, and approximately 25% of US teenagers are daily smokers. Prenatal nicotine exposure is known to produce brain damage, to alter synaptic function and to cause behavioral anomalies, but little or no work has been done to determine if the adolescent brain is also vulnerable. We examined the effect of(More)
Chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used pesticides, exhibits greater toxicity during development than in adulthood. We administered chlorpyrifos to neonatal rats in apparently subtoxic doses that caused no mortality and little or no weight deficits and examined developing brain regions (cerebellum, forebrain, brainstem) for signs of interference with cell(More)
During brain development, serotonin (5HT) provides essential neurotrophic signals, and in earlier work, we found that developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) elicits short-term changes in 5HT systems. In the present study, we evaluated the effects in adulthood after CPF exposures from the neural tube stage [gestational days (GD) 9-12] and the late(More)
Although nicotine is now well recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant, it also may have neuroprotectant properties. In the current study, we used PC12 cells to characterize the specific developmental phases in which these effects are expressed. In undifferentiated cells, nicotine had a modest effect on DNA synthesis (10% reduction), which was(More)
Use of chlorpyrifos (CPF) has been curtailed due to its developmental neurotoxicity. In rats, postnatal CPF administration produces lasting changes in cognitive performance, but less information is available about the effects of prenatal exposure. We administered CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days (GD) 17-20, a peak period of neurogenesis, using doses(More)
Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent changes in serotonergic (5HT) systems. We administered 1 mg/kg/day CPF to rats on postnatal days 1-4, a regimen below the threshold for systemic toxicity. When tested in adulthood, CPF-exposed animals showed abnormalities in behavioral tests that involve 5HT mechanisms. In the elevated plus(More)
Previously, we found that exposure of neonatal rats to chlorpyrifos (CPF) produced brain cell damage and loss, with resultant abnormalities of synaptic development. We used the same biomarkers to examine prenatal CPF treatment so as to define the critical period of vulnerability. One group of pregnant rats received CPF (subcutaneous injections in dimethyl(More)
The commonly-used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), impairs brain cell development, axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. In the current study, we administered CPF to neonatal rats on postnatal (PN) days 1-4 (1 mg/kg) or PN11-14 (5 mg/kg), treatments that were devoid of overt toxicity. We then examined two cholinergic synaptic markers, choline(More)