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The widely used organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos is a suspected neuroteratogen. In the current study, we compared the effects of chlorpyrifos and its major metabolites in two in vitro models, neuronotypic PC12 cells and gliotypic C6 cells. Chlorpyrifos inhibited DNA synthesis in both cell lines but had a greater effect on gliotypic cells. Chlorpyrifos(More)
Nearly all smokers begin tobacco use in adolescence, and approximately 25% of US teenagers are daily smokers. Prenatal nicotine exposure is known to produce brain damage, to alter synaptic function and to cause behavioral anomalies, but little or no work has been done to determine if the adolescent brain is also vulnerable. We examined the effect of(More)
Although nicotine is now well recognized as a developmental neurotoxicant, it also may have neuroprotectant properties. In the current study, we used PC12 cells to characterize the specific developmental phases in which these effects are expressed. In undifferentiated cells, nicotine had a modest effect on DNA synthesis (10% reduction), which was(More)
During brain development, serotonin (5HT) provides essential neurotrophic signals, and in earlier work, we found that developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) elicits short-term changes in 5HT systems. In the present study, we evaluated the effects in adulthood after CPF exposures from the neural tube stage [gestational days (GD) 9-12] and the late(More)
The commonly-used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), impairs brain cell development, axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. In the current study, we administered CPF to neonatal rats on postnatal (PN) days 1-4 (1 mg/kg) or PN11-14 (5 mg/kg), treatments that were devoid of overt toxicity. We then examined two cholinergic synaptic markers, choline(More)
Use of chlorpyrifos (CPF) has been curtailed due to its developmental neurotoxicity. In rats, postnatal CPF administration produces lasting changes in cognitive performance, but less information is available about the effects of prenatal exposure. We administered CPF to pregnant rats on gestational days (GD) 17-20, a peak period of neurogenesis, using doses(More)
The widespread use of chlorpyrifos has raised concern about the potential consequences of fetal and childhood exposure. Previous studies have shown that apparently subtoxic doses of chlorpyrifos are nevertheless capable of affecting brain development by inhibiting mitosis, eliciting apoptosis, and altering neuronal activity and reactivity. To determine(More)
Previously, we found that exposure of neonatal rats to chlorpyrifos (CPF) produced brain cell damage and loss, with resultant abnormalities of synaptic development. We used the same biomarkers to examine prenatal CPF treatment so as to define the critical period of vulnerability. One group of pregnant rats received CPF (subcutaneous injections in dimethyl(More)
The use of dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent respiratory distress in preterm infants is suspected to produce neurobehavioral deficits. We used PC12 cells to model the effects of DEX on different stages of neuronal development, utilizing exposures from 24 h up to 11 days and concentrations from 0.01 to 10 microM, simulating subtherapeutic, therapeutic, and(More)
Organophosphates affect mammalian brain development through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared property of cholinesterase inhibition. We used microarrays to characterize similarities and differences in transcriptional responses to chlorpyrifos and diazinon, assessing defined gene groupings for the pathways known to be associated with the mechanisms(More)