Frederic D. Bushman

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line built using the PyCogent toolkit6, to address the problem of taking sequencing data from raw sequences to interpretation and database deposition. QIIME, available at http://qiime.sourceforge. net/, supports a wide range of microbial community analyses and visualizations that have been central to several recent high-profile studies, including network(More)
MOTIVATION The Nearest Alignment Space Termination (NAST) tool is commonly used in sequence-based microbial ecology community analysis, but due to the limited portability of the original implementation, it has not been as widely adopted as possible. Python Nearest Alignment Space Termination (PyNAST) is a complete reimplementation of NAST, which includes(More)
Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets,(More)
Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) rely upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate their replication. Here, we combined genome-wide siRNA analyses with interrogation of human interactome databases to assemble a host-pathogen biochemical network containing 213 confirmed host cellular factors and 11 HIV-1-encoded proteins. Protein complexes that(More)
A defining feature of HIV replication is integration of the proviral cDNA into human DNA. The selection of chromosomal targets for integration is crucial for efficient viral replication, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here we describe mapping of 524 sites of HIV cDNA integration on the human genome sequence. Genes were found to be strongly favored(More)
The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV), and murine leukemia virus (MLV). Effects of gene(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a small genome and therefore relies heavily on the host cellular machinery to replicate. Identifying which host proteins and complexes come into physical contact with the viral proteins is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of how HIV rewires the host's cellular machinery during the course of infection. Here we(More)
Early steps of infection by HIV-1 involve entry of the viral core into cells, reverse transcription to form the linear viral DNA, and integration of that DNA into a chromosome of the host. The unintegrated DNA can also follow non-productive pathways, in which it is circularized by recombination between DNA long-terminal repeats (LTRs), circularized by(More)
We have investigated the organization and function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) preintegration complexes (PICs), the large nucleoprotein particles that carry out cDNA integration in vivo. PICs can be isolated from HIV-1-infected cells, and such particles are capable of carrying out integration reactions in vitro. We find that although the(More)
Immense populations of viruses are present in the human gut and other body sites. Understanding the role of these populations (the human "virome") in health and disease requires a much deeper understanding of their composition and dynamics in the face of environmental perturbation. Here, we investigate viromes from human subjects on a controlled feeding(More)