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We use Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to investigate coordination of cell proliferation and cell elongation in the three components that develop side by side in the seed. Two of these, the embryo and its nurturing annex, the endosperm, are placed under zygotic control and develop within the seed integument placed under maternal control. We show that(More)
Flowering plants have evolved a unique reproductive process called double fertilization, whereby two dimorphic female gametes are fertilized by two immotile sperm cells conveyed by the pollen tube. The two sperm cells are arranged in tandem with a leading pollen tube nucleus to form the male germ unit and are placed under the same genetic controls. Genes(More)
DNA methylation maintains genome stability and regulates gene expression [1]. In mammals, DNA methylation is reprogrammed in the germline from one generation to the next [2]. In plants, it was considered that patterns of DNA methylation are stably maintained through sexual reproduction [3-6]. However, a recent report showed discrete variations of DNA(More)
Fertilization in flowering plants initiates the development of the embryo and endosperm, which nurtures the embryo. A few genes subjected to imprinting are expressed in endosperm from their maternal allele, while their paternal allele remains silenced. Imprinting of the FWA gene involves DNA methylation. Mechanisms controlling imprinting of the Polycomb(More)
Fertilization in both animals and plants relies on the correct targeting of the male gametes to the female gametes. In flowering plants, the pollen tube carries two male gametes through the maternal reproductive tissues to the embryo sac, which contains two female gametes. The pollen tube then releases its two male gametes into a specialized receptor cell(More)
Epigenetic inheritance is more widespread in plants than in mammals, in part because mammals erase epigenetic information by germline reprogramming. We sequenced the methylome of three haploid cell types from developing pollen: the sperm cell, the vegetative cell, and their precursor, the postmeiotic microspore, and found that unlike in mammals the plant(More)
In most eukaryotes, the HISTONE 3 family comprises several variants distinguished by their amino acid sequence, localization, and correlation with transcriptional activity. Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic information carried by histones is still unclear. In addition to covalent histone modifications, the mosaic distribution of H3 variants onto(More)
Sexual reproduction involves epigenetic reprogramming comprising DNA methylation and histone modifications. In addition, dynamics of HISTONE3 (H3) variant H3.3 upon fertilization are conserved in animals, suggesting an essential role. In contrast to H3, H3.3 marks actively transcribed regions of the genome and can be deposited in a replication-independent(More)
Parental genomic imprinting causes preferential expression of one of the two parental alleles. In mammals, differential sex-dependent deposition of silencing DNA methylation marks during gametogenesis initiates a new cycle of imprinting. Parental genomic imprinting has been detected in plants and relies on DNA methylation by the methyltransferase MET1.(More)
Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate(More)