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This paper presents the BirthSIM model, a haptic interface of a childbirth simulator. The aim of this haptic interface is to improve haptic rendering and increase the biofidelity of the movements and forces which occur during the fetal descent. Thus the model of this 2 degrees of freedom pneumatic actuated interface is presented in this article, in order to(More)
This paper proposes a position observation technique for either a salient or non-salient Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). Combining high-frequency signal injection with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the observer provides highly accurate position estimation over a wide speed range and even at standstill under heavy load conditions. Experimental(More)
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