Freda Patterson

Learn More
Craving is a hallmark of drug dependence, including dependence on nicotine. Many studies have examined the neural substrates of cravings elicited by smoking-related cues. Less is known about the neural basis of unprovoked, abstinence-induced cravings, despite the contributions of such cravings to smoking relapse. To fill this gap, we used arterial spin(More)
BACKGROUND Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a key target in medication development for various neuropsychiatric disorders, including nicotine dependence. Varenicline, a partial agonist at the alpha4beta2 nAChRs, is a new, efficacious medication for nicotine dependence. Its effects on the affective and cognitive dimensions of nicotine(More)
BACKGROUND Nicotine is metabolized to cotinine, and cotinine is metabolized to 3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) by the liver enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6. More rapid metabolism of nicotine may result in lower nicotine blood levels from nicotine replacement products and poorer smoking cessation outcomes. This study evaluated the utility of the 3-HC/cotinine(More)
We examined whether a pretreatment phenotypic marker of nicotine metabolism rate (NMR) predicts successful smoking cessation with bupropion. Smokers (N = 414) were tested for pretreatment NMR, based on the ratio of 3′-hydroxycotinine/ cotinine derived during smoking, before entering a placebocontrolled randomized trial of bupropion plus counseling. At the(More)
The increase in levels of blood nicotine that occurs from smoking a single cigarette, sometimes referred to as a "nicotine boost," is an individualized measure of how much nicotine has been extracted from smoking a cigarette. This study investigated the demographic, smoking status, and psychological predictors of nicotine boost in a sample of 190(More)
Although bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are efficacious tobacco dependence treatments, there is substantial interindividual variability in therapeutic response and most smokers relapse. Pharmacogenetics research may improve treatment outcomes by identifying genetic variants predictive of therapeutic response. We investigated the roles of(More)
We investigated the effect of slow metabolism of nicotine, predicted by CYP2A6 genotypes resulting in ⩽50% activity, on baseline smoking behaviours and treatment variables in an open-label nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) clinical trial. Caucasian smokers with CYP2A6 slow vs normal metabolism had lower metabolic activity, indicated by the(More)
Transdermal nicotine is widely used for smoking cessation, but only approximately 20% of smokers quit successfully with this medication. Interindividual variability in nicotine metabolism rate may influence treatment response. This study sought to validate, and extend in a larger sample, our previous finding that the ratio of plasma nicotine metabolites(More)
ABSTRACTTo determine whether the functional mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) Asn40Asp variant predicts the comparative efficacy of different forms of NRT, we conducted a clinical trial of transdermal nicotine (TN) vs nicotine nasal spray (NS) in 320 smokers of European ancestry. Smokers carrying the OPRM1 Asp40 variant (n=82) were significantly more likely than(More)
The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in substance abuse and response to pharmacotherapies for nicotine and alcohol addiction. We examined (1) the association of the functional OPRM1 A118G variant with the relative reinforcing value of nicotine and (2) the main and interacting effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on nicotine(More)