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Low folate intake as well as alterations in folate metabolism as a result of polymorphisms in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with an increased incidence of neural tube defects, vascular disease, and some cancers. Polymorphic variants of MTHFR lead to enhanced thymidine pools and better quality DNA synthesis that(More)
Between 1979 and 1981, 45,130 women in Edinburgh aged 45-64 were entered into a randomised trial of breast cancer screening by mammography and clinical examination. The initial attendance rate was 61% but this varied according to age and socioeconomic status and decreased over succeeding years. The cancer detection rate was 6.2 per 1000 women attending at(More)
BACKGROUND The Edinburgh randomised trial of breast-cancer screening recruited women aged 45-64 years from 1978 to 1981 (cohort 1), and those aged 45-49 years during 1982-85 (cohorts 2 and 3). Results based on 14 years of follow-up and 270,000 woman-years of observation are reported. METHODS Breast-cancer mortality rates in the intervention group (28,628(More)
Infant acute leukemia (IAL) frequently involves breakage and recombination of the MLL gene with one of several potential partner genes. These gene fusions arise in utero and are similar to those found in leukemias secondary to chemotherapy with inhibitors of topoisomerase II (topo-II). This has led to the hypothesis that in utero exposures to chemicals may(More)
From 1992-2001, 7 countries in Europe gradually recruited men for the European Randomised Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. Centres recruit different age groups and have different designs for recruiting and countries have different underlying risks for prostate cancer. Recruitment has reached 163,126 men aged 55-69 at entry now. Our purpose was(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine any cardiac or vascular morbidity associated with long term treatment with tamoxifen given after mastectomy for primary breast cancer. DESIGN Cohort study using linkage between database of a randomised trial and statistics of Scottish hospital inpatients to identify episodes of cardiac and vascular morbidity. SETTING NHS hospitals(More)
A population-based case-control study of diet, inherited susceptibility and prostate cancer was undertaken in the lowlands and central belt of Scotland to investigate the effect of phyto-oestrogen intake and serum concentrations on prostate cancer risk. A total of 433 cases and 483 controls aged 50-74 years were asked to complete a validated FFQ and provide(More)
This article presents additional follow-up analysis of women aged 45-49 from the Edinburgh Randomized Trial of Breast Cancer Screening. The screening protocol included four mammographic examinations at two-year intervals and seven annual clinical examinations. Altogether, 21,774 women aged 45-49 were recruited from 1978 to 1985 using cluster randomization.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether parental occupations and chemical and other specific exposures are risk factors for childhood leukaemia. DESIGN Case-control study. Information on parents was obtained by home interview. SETTING Three areas in north England: Copeland and South Lakeland (west Cumbria); Kingston upon Hull, Beverley, East Yorkshire, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that reduced exposure to common infections in the first year of life increases the risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Design and setting The United Kingdom childhood cancer study (UKCCS) is a large population based case-control study of childhood cancer across 10 regions of the UK. PARTICIPANTS 6305 children(More)