Fred Williams

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In Experiment 1, sham operated (SCON) and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei (DMN) lesioned (L) rats were given saline or naloxone (0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg) just prior to the onset of the dark cycle, lights out. Compared to saline injections, naloxone at all doses suppressed the cumulative food intake of the SCON during the second and third hr of measurement.(More)
We observed previously that totally liver denervated (TLD) rats consumed more of an imbalanced amino acid diet (IAAD) than sham-operated controls (CON). For the present study rats were either CON, TLD, had only the hepatic-vagal branch cut (HVX), or had all nerves on the hepatic artery and portal vein removed (HAPV) (n = 10-11). The rats were prefed a(More)
Unlike rats which have electrolytic dorsomedial hypothalamic area lesions and are hypophagic and hypodipsic, the rats of the present study with dorsomedial hypothalamic area, kainic acid lesions (KAL) were postoperatively aphagic and adipsic. Subsequently, KAL rats rejected chow or a high-fat diet but ate a 30% sucrose-chow diet. Similarly the KAL rats were(More)
A series of experiments in monkeys using the fluorescent tracer substances Fast Blue and Nuclear yellow as well as wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the ciliary ganglion has demonstrated labeling in 3 distinct regions of the mesencephalon: (1) anterior median nucleus; (2) Edinger-Westphal nucleus; and (3) the nucleus of Perlia.(More)
Hepatic glucoreceptors have been hypothesized to have an important role in determining normal hunger and satiety. In the present study 23 dogs were fitted with chronic hepatic portal and jugular vein cannulas. The dogs were fed for 1 hr/day. On infusion days (total of 318 infusions) the animals were infused into the portal or jugular veins with a 30%(More)
The serotonin3 receptor antagonist ICS 205-930 (ICS) may act peripherally to attenuate the anorectic response of rats given an imbalanced amino acid (IMB) diet. Rats were divided into four groups: SHAM+saline (sal); SHAM+ICS; total liver denervation (TLD) + sal; and TLD+ICS. Rats were then given a purified basal diet for 16 days. Next, the groups were(More)
Male and female rats were liver denervated [hepatic vagal branch transection (VAG-B), hepatic artery-portal vein denervations (H-ART) or total liver denervation (TOTAL)] and sham operated (SHAM). Rats were given chow along with exposure to sucrose and fructose solutions. Chow intakes and body weight gains of all experimental groups were similar to their(More)
An anorectic response occurs following ingestion of imbalanced amino acid (IMB) diets. There are three phases to this response: 1, recognition of the IMB diet; 2, conditioned development of an aversion to the IMB diet; and 3, adaptation. Blockade of peripheral serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors or vagotomy attenuates Phase 2 of the anorectic response. We(More)
Cholinergic neurons degenerate in Alzheimer's disease, resulting in cognitive impairments and memory deficits, and drug development efforts have focused on selective M1 muscarinic agonists. 5-(3-Ethyl-1,2,4- oxadiazol-5-yl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine trifluoroacetic acid (CDD-0102) stimulates M1 muscarinic receptors in rat brain [Messer, W.S., Jr., Abuh,(More)