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Neurons process and encode information by generating sequences of action potentials. For all spiking neurons, the encoding of single-neuron computations into sequences of spikes is biophysically determined by the cell's action-potential-generating mechanism. It has recently been discovered that apparently minor modifications of this mechanism can(More)
Autosomal recessive generalized myotonia (Becker's disease) (GM) and autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen's disease) (MC) are characterized by skeletal muscle stiffness that is a result of muscle membrane hyperexcitability. For both diseases, alterations in muscle chloride or sodium currents or both have been observed. A complementary DNA for a(More)
Understanding how ethanol influences behavior is key to deciphering the mechanisms of ethanol action and alcoholism. In mammals, low doses of ethanol stimulate locomotion, whereas high doses depress it. The acute stimulant effect of ethanol has been proposed to be a manifestation of its rewarding effects. In Drosophila, ethanol exposure transiently(More)
BACKGROUND Increased ethanol intake, a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders, is facilitated by the development of tolerance to both the aversive and pleasurable effects of the drug. The molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol tolerance development are complex and are not yet well understood. METHODS To identify genetic mechanisms(More)
Complexins (CPXs I-IV) presumably act as regulators of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex, but their function in the intact mammalian nervous system is not well established. Here, we explored the role of CPXs in the mouse auditory system. Hearing was impaired in CPX I knock-out mice but normal in(More)
Arousal is fundamental to many behaviors, but whether it is unitary or whether there are different types of behavior-specific arousal has not been clear. In Drosophila, dopamine promotes sleep-wake arousal. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding its influence on environmentally stimulated arousal. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in(More)
The brain's visual cortex processes information concerning form, pattern, and motion within functional maps that reflect the layout of neuronal circuits. We analyzed functional maps of orientation preference in the ferret, tree shrew, and galago--three species separated since the basal radiation of placental mammals more than 65 million years ago--and found(More)
For general networks of pulse-coupled oscillators, including regular, random, and more complex networks, we develop an exact stability analysis of synchronous states. As opposed to conventional stability analysis, here stability is determined by a multitude of linear operators. We treat this multioperator problem exactly and show that for inhibitory(More)
Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) develop from pre-sensory pacemaker to sound transducer. Here, we report that this involves changes in structure and function of the ribbon synapses between IHCs and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) around hearing onset in mice. As synapses matured they changed from holding several small presynaptic active zones (AZs) and(More)