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PURPOSE Drug resistance and metastasis pose major impediments in the successful treatment of cancer. We previously reported that multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells exhibit high levels of tissue transglutaminase (TG2; EC 2.3.2.13). Because the drug-resistant and metastatic phenotypes are thought to share some common pathways, we sought to determine(More)
INTRODUCTION A physiological feature of many tumor tissues and cells is the tendency to accumulate high concentrations of copper. While the precise role of copper in tumors is cryptic, copper, but not other trace metals, is required for angiogenesis. We have recently reported that organic copper-containing compounds, including 8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II)(More)
The contribution of pericellular proteolysis to tumor progression is well documented. To better understand protease biology and facilitate clinical translation, specific proteolytic systems need to be better defined. In particular, the precise role of endogenous protease inhibitors still needs to be deciphered. We reported previously that cystatin M, a(More)
TNBC is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that does not express hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors, ER and PR) or amplified human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and there currently exist no targeted therapies effective against it. Consequently, finding new molecular targets in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is(More)
A series of subpopulation lines derived from a single mouse mammary tumor were tested for their ability to interact with each other in metabolic cooperation assays in three-dimensional col lagen gel cultures. Inhibition of growth in the presence of selec tive drug (6-thioguanine or 2-fluoroadenine) of two 6-thioguanine-resistant cell lines, 66cl4 and 44FTO,(More)
Proteins with molecular mass (M(r)) <20 kDa are often poorly separated in 2-D sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, low-M(r) proteins may not be readily identified using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) owing to the small number of peptides generated in tryptic digestion. In this work, we used a 2-D liquid separation(More)
Many epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-promoting transcription factors have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as chemoresistance of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms mediating these processes are unclear. Here, we report that Foxq1, a forkhead box-containing transcription factor and EMT-inducing gene, promotes stemness(More)
We have reported previously that both normal mammary epithelium and stroma stimulate the growth of mouse mammary tumors in vivo. We have devised a method to investigate the role of diffusible factors in these growth interactions in vitro. Because an appropriate matrix, a particular cell shape, or multicellular organization may be required for the produc(More)
To identify selective steps in metastasis, those that eliminate nonme-tastatic tumor cells more efficiently than metastatic cells, we have eval uated the sequential dissemination of tumor cells from a mammary fatpad, using both metastatic (4T1 and 66cl4) and nonmetastatic (67NR, 168FARN, and 4TO7) subpopulations of a single mouse mammary tumor. Each of(More)