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This paper presents an empirical inquiry into the applicability of zero-altered counting processes to roadway section accident frequencies. The intent of such a counting process is to distinguish sections of roadway that are truly safe (near zero-accident likelihood) from those that are unsafe but happen to have zero accidents observed during the period of(More)
In this paper, two-state Markov switching models are proposed to study accident frequencies. These models assume that there are two unobserved states of roadway safety, and that roadway entities (roadway segments) can switch between these states over time. The states are distinct, in the sense that in the different states accident frequencies are generated(More)
Compliance to standardized highway design criteria is considered essential to ensure roadway safety. However, for a variety of reasons, situations arise where exceptions to standard-design criteria are requested and accepted after review. This research explores the impact that such design exceptions have on the frequency and severity of highway accidents in(More)
In this study, two-state Markov switching multinomial logit models are proposed for statistical modeling of accident-injury severities. These models assume Markov switching over time between two unobserved states of roadway safety as a means of accounting for potential unobserved heterogeneity. The states are distinct in the sense that in different states(More)
The analysis of highway-crash data has long been used as a basis for influencing highway and vehicle designs, as well as directing and implementing a wide variety of regulatory policies aimed at improving safety. And, over time there has been a steady improvement in statistical methodologies that have enabled safety researchers to extract more information(More)
This study linked physical quantitative roadway measures with subjective, driver-perceived measures of roughness on urban highways. 56 participants from the general public were placed in normal traffic conditions and asked their opinions about pavement roughness on 40 predetermined highway test segments. Driver evaluations were collected with other data,(More)
In this study, a two-state Markov switching count-data model is proposed as an alternative to zero-inflated models to account for the preponderance of zeros sometimes observed in transportation count data, such as the number of accidents occurring on a roadway segment over some period of time. For this accident-frequency case, zero-inflated models assume(More)