Fred M. Cowan

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Despite the contrasts in chemistry and toxicity, for blister and nerve chemical warfare agents there may be some analogous proteolytic and inflammatory mediators and pathological pathways that can be pharmacological targets for a single-drug multi-threat medical countermeasure. The dermal-epidermal separation caused by proteases and bullous diseases(More)
The pathologic mechanisms underlying sulfur mustard-induced skin vesication remain undefined. Papirmeister et al. (1985) have postulated a biochemical mechanism for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury involving DNA alkylation, metabolic disruption, and enhanced proteolysic activity. We have previously utilized a chromogenic peptide substrate assay to(More)
The injection of Staphylococcus-aureus protein A into mice, previously exposed to an antigen (sheep red blood cells), is capable of augmenting or inhibiting a primary delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response. SPA enhances DH response to SRBC when given with a greater than optimal sensitizing dose of the antigen. At antigen doses optimal for eliciting DH to(More)
The pathologic mechanisms underlying sulfur mustard (HD)-induced skin vesication are as yet undefined. Papirmeister et al. (1985) postulate enhanced proteolytic activity as a proximate cause of HD-induced cutaneous injury. Using a chromogenic peptide substrate assay, we previously reported that in vitro exposure of cell cultures to HD enhances proteolytic(More)
Sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide), a radiomimetic agent with mutagenic (Cappizzi et al., i973; Fox and Scott, 1983), cytotoxic (Wheeler, 1962; Papirmeister and Davison, 1965), and vesicant (Anslow and Houck, 1946; Renshaw, 1946) properties, is also a chemical-warfare blistering agent with no known antidote. Sulfur mustard predominantly effects(More)
Sulfur mustard is a waemical warfare blistering agent for which neither the mechanism of action nor an antidote is known. Papirmeister et al. (1985) have postulated a biochemical hypothesis for mustard-induced cutaneous injury involving a sequelae of DNA alkylation, metabolic disruption and activation of protease. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes in cell(More)
Fischer F 344/CRBL female rats were injected intravenously with 10(6) syngeneic 13,762 adenocarcinoma cells, and daily doses of either 10 micrograms, 100 micrograms or 1 mg Staphylococcus aureus protein A were administered intraperitoneally on days 1 through 11. The animals were sacrificed on day 12, their lungs infused with Bouin's solution, and lung(More)