Fred L. Bookstein

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One conventional tool for interpolating surfaces over scattered data, the thin-plate spline, has an elegant algebra expressing the dependence of the physical bending energy of a thin metal plate on point constraints. For interpolation of a surface over a fixed set of nodes in the plane, the bending energy is a quadrat ic form in the heights assigned to the(More)
This paper introduces a new tool for functional neuroimage analysis: partial least squares (PLS). It is unique as a multivariate method in its choice of emphasis for analysis, that being the covariance between brain images and exogenous blocks representing either the experiment design or some behavioral measure. What emerges are spatial patterns of brain(More)
Morphometrics, a new branch of statistics, combines tools from geometry, computer graphics and biometrics in techniques for the multivariate analysis of biological shape variation. Although medical image analysts typically prefer to represent scenes by way of curving outlines or surfaces, the most recent developments in this associated statistical(More)
Clinical descriptions of patients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) suggest major problems with adaptive behavior. Five operationally defined adverse outcomes and 18 associated risk/protective factors were examined using a Life History Interview with knowledgeable informants of 415 patients with FAS or FAE (median age 14(More)
John Ashburner and Karl Friston (2000) introduced a standardized method of "voxel-based morphometry" (VBM) for comparisons of local concentrations of gray matter between two groups of subjects. Segmented images of gray matter from grossly normalized high-resolution images are smoothed and their group differences analyzed by the now-conventional voxelwise(More)
Molecular data suggest that humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than either is to the gorillas, yet one finds the closest similarity in craniofacial morphology to be among the great apes to the exclusion of humans. To clarify how and when these differences arise in ontogeny, we studied ontogenetic trajectories for Homo sapiens, Pan paniscus, Pan(More)
This study addresses some enduring issues of ontogenetic and evolutionary integration in the form of the hominid cranium. Our sample consists of 38 crania: 20 modern adult Homo sapiens, 14 sub-adult H. sapiens, and four archaic Homo. All specimens were CT-scanned except for two infant H. sapiens, who were imaged by MR instead. For each specimen 84 landmarks(More)
We critique published incidences for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and present new estimates of the incidence of FAS and the prevalence of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). We first review criteria necessary for valid estimation of FAS incidence. Estimates for three population-based studies that best meet these criteria are reported with(More)
This paper, the second in a series of three, introduces Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods for assessing the effects of moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure on performance and behavior in young school-age children. Studies of human behavioral teratology pose statistical problems for which standard multiple regression methods are inadequate.(More)
At the core of contemporary morphometrics--the quantitative study of biological shape variation--is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach,(More)