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One conventional tool for interpolating surfaces over scattered data, the thin-plate spline, has an elegant algebra expressing the dependence of the physical bending energy of a thin metal plate on point constraints. For interpolation of a surface over a fixed set of nodes in the plane, the bending energy is a quadratic form in the heights assigned to the(More)
This paper introduces a new tool for functional neuroimage analysis: partial least squares (PLS). It is unique as a multivariate method in its choice of emphasis for analysis, that being the covariance between brain images and exogenous blocks representing either the experiment design or some behavioral measure. What emerges are spatial patterns of brain(More)
Morphometrics, a new branch of statistics, combines tools from geometry, computer graphics and biometrics in techniques for the multivariate analysis of biological shape variation. Although medical image analysts typically prefer to represent scenes by way of curving outlines or surfaces, the most recent developments in this associated statistical(More)
Molecular data suggest that humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than either is to the gorillas, yet one finds the closest similarity in craniofacial morphology to be among the great apes to the exclusion of humans. To clarify how and when these differences arise in ontogeny, we studied ontogenetic trajectories for Homo sapiens, Pan paniscus, Pan(More)
This paper, the second in a series of three, introduces Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods for assessing the effects of moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure on performance and behavior in young school-age children. Studies of human behavioral teratology pose statistical problems for which standard multiple regression methods are inadequate.(More)
John Ashburner and Karl Friston (2000) introduced a standardized method of "voxel-based morphometry" (VBM) for comparisons of local concentrations of gray matter between two groups of subjects. Segmented images of gray matter from grossly normalized high-resolution images are smoothed and their group differences analyzed by the now-conventional voxelwise(More)
This keynote address reviews several techniques from morphometries (the multivariate biometrics of shape) developed mainly in the context of medical image analysis over the last decade. T h e new techniques provide powerful tools f o r geometric tasks that arise in the course of most analyses of medical images i n groups. These tasks include standardizing(More)
This study addresses some enduring issues of ontogenetic and evolutionary integration in the form of the hominid cranium. Our sample consists of 38 crania: 20 modern adult Homo sapiens, 14 sub-adult H. sapiens, and four archaic Homo. All specimens were CT-scanned except for two infant H. sapiens, who were imaged by MR instead. For each specimen 84 landmarks(More)
Heterochrony, the classic framework in which to study ontogeny and phylogeny, in essence relies on a univariate concept of shape. Though principal component (PC) plots of multivariate shape data seem to resemble classical bivariate allometric plots, the language of heterochrony cannot be translated directly into general multivariate methodology. We simulate(More)
Heterochrony, the classic framework to study ontogeny and phylogeny, in essence relies on a univariate concept of shape. Though principal component plots of multivariate shape data seem to resemble classical bivariate allometric plots, the language of heterochrony cannot be translated directly into general multivariate methodology. We simulate idealized(More)