Frazer J. Rixon

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Herpesviruses comprise an abundant, widely distributed group of large DNA viruses of humans and other vertebrates, and overall are among the most extensively studied large DNA viruses. Many herpesvirus genome sequences have been determined, and interpreted in terms of gene contents to give detailed views of both ubiquitous and lineage-specific functions.(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a major disease of livestock (bluetongue). For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of the dsRNA genome of BTV encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. The non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/NS3a) play different key roles during the viral replication cycle. In(More)
We have determined the complete DNA sequence of the short unique region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1, strain 17, and have interpreted it in terms of messenger RNAs and encoded proteins. The sequence contains variable regions whose length differs between DNA clones. The clones used for most of the analysis gave a short unique length of 12,979(More)
Several factors, including spatial and temporal coherence of the electron microscope, specimen movement, recording medium, and scanner optics, contribute to the decay of the measured Fourier amplitude in electron image intensities. We approximate the combination of these factors as a single Gaussian envelope function, the width of which is described by a(More)
Human herpesviruses are large and structurally complex viruses that cause a variety of diseases. The three-dimensional structure of the herpesvirus capsid has been determined at 8.5 angstrom resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. More than 30 putative alpha helices were identified in the four proteins that make up the 0.2 billion-dalton shell. Some of these(More)
After penetrating the host cell, the herpesvirus capsid is transported to the nucleus along the microtubule network and docks to the nuclear pore complex before releasing the viral DNA into the nucleus. The viral and cellular interactions involved in the docking process are poorly characterized. However, the minor capsid protein pUL25 has recently been(More)
The innate immune system senses infection by detecting either evolutionarily conserved molecules essential for the survival of microbes or the abnormal location of molecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown innate detection mechanism induced by fusion between viral envelopes and target cells. Virus-cell fusion specifically(More)
Genetic robustness, or fragility, is defined as the ability, or lack thereof, of a biological entity to maintain function in the face of mutations. Viruses that replicate via RNA intermediates exhibit high mutation rates, and robustness should be particularly advantageous to them. The capsid (CA) domain of the HIV-1 Gag protein is under strong pressure to(More)
Gene US9 of herpes simplex virus type 1 has been predicted, from DNA sequence analysis, to encode a protein of mol wt 10,026, designated 10K (D.J. McGeoch, A. Dolan, S. Donald, and F.J. Rixon (1985). J. Mol. Biol. 181, 1-13). We have investigated this protein by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 11 amino acids adjacent to the amino-terminal(More)
We have analysed the mRNAs which map within the short unique (US) region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome. US has a total length of 12979 base pairs (1) and is extensively transcribed with approximately 94% of the total sequence present in cytoplasmic mRNAs and 79% of the total sequence considered to be protein coding. There are several(More)